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LETTER TO EDITOR Table of Contents   
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 459
Osteopontin and its clinical significance


1 Institute of Internal Medicine, Madras Medical College, Chennai, India
2 Institute of Internal Medicine, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
3 Institute of Internal Medicine, Chennai Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Irungalur, Trichy, India

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Date of Web Publication12-Aug-2009
 

How to cite this article:
Meenakshisundaram R, Chandra S, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P. Osteopontin and its clinical significance. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2009;52:459

How to cite this URL:
Meenakshisundaram R, Chandra S, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P. Osteopontin and its clinical significance. Indian J Pathol Microbiol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Dec 11];52:459. Available from: http://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2009/52/3/459/55038


Sir,

Osteopontin (OPN), an arginine glycine aspartate containing adhesive glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 32,000 and molecular mass 44k Da, is expressed by the OPN gene. OPN is present in various tissues such as smooth muscle, endothelial cells, bone, placenta, brain, kidney, etc. OPN synthesis is stimulated by calcitriol and degraded by thrombin which is blocked by heparin. Serum OPN is estimated by modified competitive serum enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay method. [1]

OPN acts through various receptors such as β 1, β 3, β 5, α4, α5, α8 and α9. Apart from that, it acts as a ligand for CD44. OPN has been demonstrated in conditions with activated T-lymphocytes, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, malignancy, sepsis, renal stone, multiple sclerosis, vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, aneurysm, etc. [2]

OPN has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions.[3] The former is mediated through macrophage recruitment and differentiation, and early Th1 cytokine response, whereas the latter is modulated through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, MMP-2 expression and cytokines. Reverse actions are enhanced in OPN deficiency. In view of its usefulness and clinical significance, the details are discussed.

According to Golledge et al ., [4] serum OPN level was elevated in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and it increased with progression. Hence, serum OPN level may be a useful biomarker for AAA. Further, OPN can be classified as a biomarker, mediator or modulator of AAA and hence, needs further research. Also, OPN has been demonstrated as a potential biomarker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. [5] Currently, serum OPN level has been used as a prognostic/response marker in AAA and pancreatic adenocarcinoma while on treatment. [4],[5] However, its sensitivity and specificity are influenced by underlying disease status/stage and appropriate therapy or the constitutional nature of individuals. Whenever OPN is elevated and used as a biomarker for an illness, clinician has to consider probable causes and rule out the contributory situations in clinical practice. As OPN is elevated in patients with excessive scar formation, [2] further research is needed to state whether keloid is an external marker of elevated OPN.

 
   References Top

1.Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Ryu B, Hruban RH, Kern SE. Exploring the host desmoplastic response to pancreatic carcinoma. Am J Pathol 2002;160:91-9.  Back to cited text no. 1  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
2.Denhardt DT, Mistretta D, Chambers AF, Krishna S, Porter JF, Raghuram S, et al. Transcriptional regulation of Osteopontin and the metastatic phenotype: Evidence for a Ras activated enhancer in the human OPN promoter. Clin Exp Metastasis 2003;20:77-84.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
3.O'Regan A, Berman JS. Osteopontin a key cytokine in cell-mediated and granulomatous inflammation. Int J Exp Pathol 2000;81:373-90.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
4.Golledge J, Muller J, Shephard N, Clancy P, Smallwood L, Moran C, et al. Association between Osteopontin and human abdominal aortic aneurysm. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular biology 2007;27:655-60.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Koopmann J, Fedarko NS, Jain A, Maitra A, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, Rahman A, et al. Evaluation of Osteopontin as biomarker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:487-91.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]

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Correspondence Address:
Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram
No:69, Pasupathy Nagar, Madurai-625017
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.55038

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