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CASE REPORT Table of Contents   
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 308-309
Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in blood donors in Southern Haryana


1 Department of Pathology, Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha-125047 (Hisar) Haryana, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha-125047 (Hisar) Haryana, India

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Date of Web Publication12-Jun-2010
 

   Abstract 

Blood transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors. For this, a 3.5-year retrospective study, from October 2002 to April 2006 was conducted at the blood transfusion centre of Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha (Hisar) Haryana. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. A total of 5849 donors were tested, out of which 4010 (68.6%) were replacement donors and 1839 (31.4%) were voluntary donors. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.3% in the donors. No voluntary donor was found to be positive for HIV. The low sero-positivity among donors is attributed to pre-donation counseling in donor selection. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and syphilis was 1.7%, 1.0% and 0.9% respectively in total donors. The seroprevalence of hepatitis and syphilis was more in replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors.

How to cite this article:
Arora D, Arora B, Khetarpal A. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in blood donors in Southern Haryana. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2010;53:308-9

How to cite this URL:
Arora D, Arora B, Khetarpal A. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in blood donors in Southern Haryana. Indian J Pathol Microbiol [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Nov 15];53:308-9. Available from: http://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2010/53/2/308/64295



   Introduction Top


Transmission of infectious diseases through donated blood is of concern to blood safety as transfusion forms an integral part of medical and surgical therapy. Blood transfusion carries the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections, including HIV, hepatitis, syphilis, malaria and infrequently toxoplasmosis,  Brucellosis More Details and some viral infections like CMV, EBV and herpes. With every unit of blood, there is 1% chance of transfusion-associated problems including transfusion-transmitted diseases. [1] Among all infections HIV and hepatitis are the most dreadful. The first case of transfusion-associated AIDS was described in an infant given transfusion for erythroblastosis foetalis. [2] Thereafter, many cases were reported all over the world in which transfusion of blood and its products was the only risk factor. [3],[4],[5] The improved screening and testing of blood donors has significantly reduced transfusion-transmitted diseases in most developed countries. This has not been so in developing nations. Poor health education and lack of awareness result in the reservoir of infections in the population. The aim of the present study was to know the seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted diseases in donors in this area as the incidence of transfusion-transmitted HIV and hepatitis is increasing in India. [6]


   Materials And Methods Top


The present study was conducted at a blood transfusion centre under the Department of Pathology, MAMC, Agroha. Tests are routinely done on every blood unit to exclude HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria. Data was collected for a 3.5-year period from October 2002 to April 2006. In 3.5-year period, 5849 donors were tested. Donors were selected by the standard criteria for donor fitness. The screening for HIV was done by ELISA using kits (Monozyme; J. Mitra, India). HBS Ag was detected by ELISA (Transasia, India and J. Mitra, India). Anti-HCV test was done by ELISA (Monozyme, J Mitra, India and Transasia, India). Test for syphilis was done by RPR (Mediclone, India and Tulip, India).


   Results Top
[Table 1] and [Table 2]

Yearly distribution of detected seropositivity is given in [Table 1]. [Table 2] gives the details of the age and sex of the donors.


   Discussion Top


Blood transfusion is a potentially significant route of transmission, although risk may be reduced by the vigorous screening of donors and donated blood. Acquisition of HIV disease through blood transfusion is a relatively efficient mode of transmission, with rates approaching 100%. [7] In 1989, Cumming and associates estimated the risk of HIV transmission. [8] A WHO report states that the viral dose in HIV transmission through blood is so large that one HIV-positive transfusion leads to death, on an average, after two years in children and after three to five years in adults.

Today we know that all countries are joining hands to fight against transfusion- transmissible infections, specially HIV. Educating people and creating awareness about voluntary blood donation is an important factor. People are unlikely to become voluntary donors unless they receive accurate information about blood. For this voluntary blood donation camps have to be encouraged.

Moreover, it should never be forgotten that blood donations collected in the latent period of infection may be infectious despite a negative antibody test. [8] Efforts to ensure an adequate and safe blood supply should include striving for optimal use of blood and its products. It should be transfused only when its administration is absolutely essential to the care of the patient.

In our study, no voluntary donor was found to be positive for HIV, while for all other infections seroprevalence was high in replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. Sero-positivity for HIV was 0.3% in total donors which is very low as compared to the study done by Ramanamma et al.,[9] in Vishakapatnam, Shashikala et al.,[10] in North Karnataka and Kulkarni et al.,[5] in Mumbai. National data also states that higher incidence of HIV is found in Maharashtra and South India. In comparison to Northern and Western India, seropositivity for HIV in our study was slightly less. [11],[12] Seroprevalence of HBS Ag, HCV and syphilis was 1.7%, 1.0% and 0.9% respectively. This is comparable to the study done by Srikrishna et al.[13] Low sero-positivity for diseases in our study could be attributed to proper counseling of blood donors and donor selection criteria followed by rationale use of blood. The majority (96.2%) of the donors were males which is comparable to the study done by Rao and Annapurna et al., [14] in Pune and Rose et al.,[6] in Vellore.

In this study, the seroprevalence of hepatitis and HIV is less due to the inclusion of more number of voluntary donors.


   Conclusion Top


In the 3.5-year period, 5849 donors were tested. More than 68.6% were replacement donors. Male donors constituted 96.2%. Seroprevalence of HIV in total donors was 0.3%. The sero-positivity of HBS Ag, HCV and syphilis was 1.7%, 1.0% and 0.9% respectively. Seroprevalence was more in replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. No voluntary donor was found to be positive for HIV. Therefore, it is concluded that voluntary blood donation should be encouraged for prevention of transfusion-transmissible diseases. The time and cost involved in screening donated blood can be reduced by an effective donor education and selection program that promotes self-exclusion by donors at risk of transfusion-transmissible infections.

The present study concludes that motivating voluntary blood donors is the most effective way of ensuring adequate supplies of safe blood on a continuing basis.

 
   References Top

1.Widmann FK, editor. Technical manual American association of blood banks. Aglington USA: 1985. p. 325-44.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Hollan SR, Wagstaff W, Leikola J, Lothe F. Management of blood transfusion services, Geneva: World Health Organization; 1990. p. 131.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Pita-Ram Irez L, Torres Ortiz GE. Prevalence of viral antibodies and syphilis serology in blood donors from a hospital. Rev Invest Clin 1997;49:475-80.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Triwibowo. Anti-HIV, Anti HCV, syphilis, HBS Ag serologic tests among high-risk groups and blood donors in yogyakarta, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1993;24:275-7.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]    
5.Kulkarni HG, Koppikar GV, Mehta PR, Borges NE. Seroprevalence of HIV-1 infection in Bombay (B321) in abstracts from the 2 nd international congress on AIDS in Asia and the pacific No. 92.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Dolly R, Annie S, Thaiyanayaki P, Babu George P, Hohn Jacob T. Increasing prevalence of HIV antibody among blood donors monitored over 9 years in blood donors monitored over 9 years in blood bank. Indian J Med Res 1998;108:42-4.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Ward JW, Deppe DA, Samson S, Perkins H, Holland P, Fernando L, et al. Risk of HIV infection from blood donors who later developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:61-2.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]    
8.Cumming PD, Wallace EL, Schoor JB, Dodd RY. Exposure of patients to HIV through the transfusion of blood components that test antibody negative. N Engl J Med 1989;321:941-6.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Ramanamma MV, Rfamani TV. A Preliminary report on the seroprevalence of HIV-2 in Vishakapatnam. Indian J Med Microbiol 1994;12:212-5.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Tallaor Shashikala S, Shahapurkar A, Krishan BV. Prevalence of HIV infection among blood donors in North Karnataka. Indian J Med Microbiol 1997;15:123-5.   Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Joshi SR. Seropositive status for HIV infection among voluntary and replacement blood donors in the city of Surat from Western India. Indian J Hemat and Blood Transf 1988;16:20-1.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Kapur S, Mittal A. Incidence of HIV infection and its predictors in blood donors in Delhi. Indian J Med Res 1998;108:45-50.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]    
13.Srikrishna A, Sitalakshmi S, Prema Damodar S. How safe are our safe donors? Indian J Pathol Microbiol 1999;42:411-6.  Back to cited text no. 13  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
14.Rao P, Annapurna K. HIV status of blood donors and patients admitted in KEM Hospital Pune. Indian J Hemat Blood Transf 1994;12:174-6.  Back to cited text no. 14      

Top
Correspondence Address:
Dimple Arora
Department of Pathology, Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha-125 047, (Hisar) Haryana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.64295

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

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