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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 294-298

Immunophenotypic profile of plasma cell leukemia: A retrospective study in a reference cancer center in India and review of literature


1 Department of Pathology, Hematopathology Laboratory, Tata Memorial Center, Mumbai, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Tata Memorial Center, Mumbai, India

Correspondence Address:
Sumeet Gujral
Department of Pathology, Hematopathology Laboratory, Tata Memorial Center, Mumbai
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.81603

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Background: Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare but aggressive subtype of plasma cell dyscrasia. It is known to present with highly variable morphological features and may mimic with other lymphoid neoplasms. Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC) with availability of newer markers is highly useful in the diagnosis of the plasma cell leukemia. We present an immunophenotypic profile in ten cases of PCL along with their clinical and laboratory findings. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied immunophenotypic profile of 10 cases of plasma cell leukemia (out of 4615 cases of hematolymphoid neoplasms) using five parameter, three color flow cytometric analysis. We also studied their clinical presentation and other laboratory findings. Results: Common clinical features at presentation were weakness, bone pain, anemia, thrombocytopenia and osteolytic lesions. Plasma cell population was identified on strong expression of CD38 and co-expression of CD38 and CD138. CD56 was expressed in 44% cases. CD19 and CD20 were negative in all cases. Surface light chain restriction was seen in 50% cases and in remaining 50% cases revealed cytoplasmic light chain restriction. CD117 was expressed in one out of two cases studied. Conclusions: MFC immunophenotyping is highly useful to differentiate Plasma cell leukemia from other chronic lymphoproliferative disorders with plasmacytoid morphology as well as from non-neoplastic reactive PC and co-expression of CD38 and CD138 is a best combination to identify the plasma cells by MFC.


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