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LETTER TO EDITOR  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 261
Molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from a breast abscess case


Department of Microbiology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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Date of Web Publication9-May-2016
 

How to cite this article:
Elumalai S, Seetharaman S. Molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from a breast abscess case. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2016;59:261

How to cite this URL:
Elumalai S, Seetharaman S. Molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from a breast abscess case. Indian J Pathol Microbiol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Jun 27];59:261. Available from: http://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2016/59/2/261/182030


Editor,

Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In continuation with the previous report,[1] we have analyzed the fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism in S. Typhi from a breast abscess case, which is rare and uncommon. The S. Typhi isolate showed high-level resistance to nalidixic acid (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] >512 µg/ml) and ciprofloxacin (MIC 8 µg/ml). The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance among Salmonella isolates have been reported in various parts of Asia, including India.[2] Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. has been reported to occur mainly due to the mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and/or gyrB and/or parC and/or parE gene.[3] QRDRs of the S. Typhi isolate was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using forward and reverse primer pairs with a boiled suspension of bacterial cells as DNA template.[4] Amplified products were sequenced (ABI 3730XL DNA Analyzer [Applied Biosystems]) and the nucleotide sequences were analyzed by searching GenBank using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool ( target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/"). We also analyzed a ciprofloxacin sensitive S. Typhi strain (MIC 0.032 µg/ml) for a mutation to allow comparison with the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Typhi strain. Nucleotide sequence analysis results revealed that the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Typhi isolate had double mutations at positions 83 (Ser83-Phe) and 87 (Asp87-Asn) of GyrA and single mutation at position 80 (Ser80-Ile) of parC whereas no mutation was observed in the QRDRs of gyrB and parE genes. No mutation was detected in the QRDR of ciprofloxacin sensitive S. Typhi strain. Study reports [5],[6] have documented that increased fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. is mainly due to mutations in the QRDR, which is in agreement with our study result. Though the mechanism of resistance in the fluoroquinolone resistant S. Typhi isolate is chromosome mediated, increased use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics may impose selective pressure on the organism which may increase the number of such resistant strains in future.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Kumar ES, Selvam RE, Ramesh SS. Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in breast abscess: A case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2012;55:608-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
2.
Thamizhmani R, Bhattacharya D, Sayi DS, Bhattacharjee H, Muruganandam N, Ghosal SR, et al. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Indian J Med Res 2012;136:98-101.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
3.
Redgrave LS, Sutton SB, Webber MA, Piddock LJ. Fluoroquinolone resistance: Mechanisms, impact on bacteria, and role in evolutionary success. Trends Microbiol 2014;22:438-45.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Fàbrega A, du Merle L, Le Bouguénec C, Jiménez de Anta MT, Vila J. Repression of invasion genes and decreased invasion in a high-level fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella typhimurium mutant. PLoS One 2009;4:e8029.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hassing RJ, Menezes GA, van Pelt W, Petit PL, van Genderen PJ, Goessens WH. Analysis of mechanisms involved in reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serotypes typhi and paratyphi A isolates from travellers to Southeast Asia. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2011;37:240-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Frye JG, Jackson CR. Genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance identified in Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Enteroccocus spp. isolated from U.S. food animals. Front Microbiol 2013;4:135.  Back to cited text no. 6
    

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Correspondence Address:
Srivani Seetharaman
Department of Microbiology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai - 600 113, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.182030

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