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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 322-326

Distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacteria from a tertiary hospital in Nigeria


1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Molecular Biology Unit, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo Campus, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; Antimicrobials Research Group, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Molecular Biology Unit, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo Campus, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
3 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal Medical Centre, Ebonyi; Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Remo Campus, Ago Iwoye, Nigeria
4 Department of Biochemistry, Kampala International University, Kampala, Uganda
5 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Remo Campus, Ago Iwoye, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. David Olusoga Ogbolu
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo Campus, Ogbomoso, Osun, Nigeria

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.188108

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Background: Until recently, mechanisms of resistance to quinolones in Gram-negative bacteria were believed to be only chromosome encoded. However, emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been reported worldwide. Aim: This study investigated distribution of PMQR in Gram-negative bacteria from a tertiary hospital in eastern part of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Seventy-one nonduplicate Gram-negative bacterial isolates of eight species were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, genotypic detection of various PMQRs, typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and analysis of plasmids present, including replicon typing. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations showed MIC90values as high as 256 μg/ml for fluoroquinolones. Carriage of PMQR was found to be 35.2%. Twenty (28.2%) isolates carried various qnr genes, of which seven (9.9%) qnrA1; four (5.6%) qnrB1; eight (11.3%) qnrS1 while one (1.4%) encoded qnrD1. Eighteen (25.4%) isolates were positive for aac(6')-Ib-cr while carriage of multiple genes exists in some strains. Similarly, 13 isolates (18.7%) were found to carry PMQR efflux pump gene, qepA. Conjugation experiments revealed that the plasmids once transferred coded for fluoroquinolone resistance. The transconjugant strains carried a common plasmid estimated to be 65 kb. These plasmids were untypable for replicon/incompatibility. Typing revealed high diversity among all species tested with no identical RAPD pattern seen. Conclusion: This study further confirms high level resistance to many antimicrobials in different species of Gram-negative bacteria including fluoroquinolones and spread of PMQR genes in Southern Nigeria.


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