Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2011  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 335--338

Immunohistochemical and morphologic findings in columnar cell lesions of the breast


Ebru Demiralay1, Beyhan Demirhan1, Alper Koçbiyik1, Aylin Sar1, Gülüm Altaca2,  
1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey
2 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Ebru Demiralay
Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Hospital, Department of Pathology, Oymaci Sokak No:7, Altunizade, 34662, Istanbul
Turkey

Abstract

Background: Columnar cell lesions (CCLs) with or without atypia frequently coexist with invasive or in situ breast carcinomas. In this study, 39 mastectomy specimens containing CCLs coexisting with invasive carcinomas were retrospectively analyzed for cellular characteristics and structural pattern of CCL neighboring the tumor. Materials and Methods: The expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and p53 antibodies in CCL and coexisting invasive tumors, type of invasive tumor, histopathologic grade, and presence of atypia in CCL have been studied. Results: Sixteen (41%) of all CCLs were with atypia, whereas 23 (59%) of them were without atypia. No correlations were found between the presence of CCLs with atypia and either the morphologic type of carcinoma or histopathologic grade of the tumors. Presence of atypia in the CCL was not correlated with the expression of p53 in the invasive tumors. CCLs without atypia dominated in Grade III tumors. The percentages of CCLs without atypia were also higher in both ER (−) and PR (−) tumors. Conclusions: CCL with atypia is generally considered to be a precursor of invasive carcinoma; however, in our study, CCLs without atypia more frequently coexisted with breast carcinoma.



How to cite this article:
Demiralay E, Demirhan B, Koçbiyik A, Sar A, Altaca G. Immunohistochemical and morphologic findings in columnar cell lesions of the breast.Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2011;54:335-338


How to cite this URL:
Demiralay E, Demirhan B, Koçbiyik A, Sar A, Altaca G. Immunohistochemical and morphologic findings in columnar cell lesions of the breast. Indian J Pathol Microbiol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2020 Jan 20 ];54:335-338
Available from: http://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2011/54/2/335/81630


Full Text

 Introduction



The development of breast cancer is now believed to be a complex multistep process originating in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) and progressing toward invasive cancer. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15] Recent attention has focused on a group of TDLU lesions called columnar cell lesions (CCLs). [1] CCLs with or without atypia frequently coexist with invasive or in situ carcinomas. [1],[4],[10],[16] Observations support the hypothesis that these lesions are low-grade precursors of in situ and invasive neoplastic lesions of the breast. [1],[2],[5],[8],[14],[15],[16]

In this study we aimed to analyze the morphologic and immunophenotypic features of invasive breast carcinoma and coexisting CCLs.

 Materials and Methods



Thirty-nine mastectomy specimens containing CCLs coexisting with invasive carcinomas were retrospectively analyzed for cellular characteristics and structural pattern of CCLs neighboring the tumor. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of paraffin-embedded blocks were studied by routine light microscopy for histopathologic type, grade of invasive tumor, and existence of atypia in the neighboring CCLs. We measured the major axis of lesion nests with an ocular micrometer in each case and recorded. The total diameter of all lesions was recorded in case the lesions were scattered.

Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections using of the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. Positive controls used were sections of breast carcinoma known to be positive for each of the other markers.

Immunohistochemical staining was performed with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and with p53 primary antibodies and the staining patterns were scored. For ER, PR, and p53, staining was expressed as negative (-) or positive (+). Statistical analyses have been performed by SPSS (SPSS inc. Chicago, USA) V11.5.

 Results



Features of coexisting CCL according to the histopathologic types of carcinoma are shown in [Table 1]. Coexisting CCLs were with atypia in 41% and without atypia in 59% [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. The mean size of the CCLs was 3,053 mm (range: 0.4-8 mm).{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Table 1}

Presence of atypia in the coexisting CCL according to the histopathologic grade of the tumors is shown in [Table 2]. The percentage of CCLs with or without atypia in Grade I and Grade II tumors were similar; however, CCLs without atypia dominated in Grade III tumors (5/6). {Table 2}

Eight of the invasive carcinomas were ER (-) in the total series. Among those, 6 of the CCLs were ER (+) [Figure 3]. In ER (-) invasive carcinomas, CCLs with and without atypia were present in 33% and 66%, respectively (P = 0.03) [Table 3].{Figure 3}{Table 3}

All of the coexisting CCLs were PR (+) in PR (-) invasive tumors (n=4) and 3 of them were without atypia [Table 4]. The number of CCLs with and without atypia was similar in the PR (+) invasive tumors. {Table 4}

The p53 positivity rate in the invasive carcinomas was 33% (13 cases); among those, CCLs were with atypia in 6 (46%) and without atypia in 7 (54%). Among p53 negative invasive carcinomas, CCLs with and without atypia were present in 35% and 65%, respectively (P = 0.03). All the CCLs in the total series were p53 negative.

 Discussion



CCLs are increasingly being encountered in breast biopsies because their associated microcalcifications are detected on mammographic screening. [1],[2],[3],[5],[6],[8],[11],[14],[16],[17],[18] CCLs have been variously referred to as columnar alteration of lobules, low-grade clinging carcinoma in situ, columnar alteration of lobules with prominent apical snouts and secretions, small ectatic ducts with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), blunt duct adenosis, ductal intraepithelial neoplasia-flat type, unfolded lobules, and atypical cystic lobules. [1],[2],[5],[6],[8],[9],[12],[14],[15]

CCLs can be formed from a single or double layer of columnar cells that are regular in size and shape with relatively bland nuclear features arranged perpendicular to basement membrane. The nuclei are uniform; typically ovoid with finely dispersed chromatin with inconspicuous nucleoli. Mitoses are not generally seen. Secretions and calcifications are often present in the lumen and apical snouts are noted at the luminal aspect of the cells. [1],[2],[5],[14],[15],[16],[17]

CCLs of the breast are classified as with atypia and without atypia. CCL with atypia, which has been referred as clinging carcinoma of monomorphic type by some authors, is now described as ductal intraepithelial neoplasia 1a (DIN 1a) or flat epithelial atypia (FEA) in the recent WHO classification of breast tumors. [19]

Discrimination of these lesions from the clinically inconsiderable lesions becomes important because some part of the CCLs has correlation with atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, and invasive carcinoma. Schnitt and Vincent-Saloman [15] have proposed a simplified terminology for CCLs of the breast, and have grouped these lesions into 4 basic categories: columnar cell change, columnar cell hyperplasia, columnar cell change with atypia, and columnar cell hyperplasia with atypia. The latter 2 entities alternatively are known as FEA. There is emerging evidence in recent years to suggest that FEA is of neoplastic origin or even the earliest morphologic manifestation of low-grade DCIS as well as a precursor of invasive tubular carcinoma. [14]

In the total series, CCLs with and without atypia were 41% and 59%, respectively. When the apocrine and metaplastic carcinomas (1 case each) are excluded, CCL with atypia was found to be highest in tubular carcinoma (60%), followed by mixed carcinoma (50%), invasive lobular carcinoma (43%), and invasive ductal carcinoma (33%). In the majority of reports, CCL with atypia is generally considered to be a precursor of invasive carcinoma; however, in our study, CCLs without atypia more frequently coexisted with breast carcinoma, and in 83% of Grade III tumors, CCLs without atypia were encountered. [1],[2],[5],[8],[9],[13],[14],[15],[16] No statistical significance was detected probably due to low numbers. The percentages of CCLs without atypia were also higher in both ER (-) and PR (-) tumors.

CCL is a nonobligate precursor for the development of invasive carcinoma. The lesions observed could be forme fruste that did not go on to develop into invasive ductal carcinoma.

Our findings are consistent with the previously demonstrated fact that all categories of CCLs show histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features that are strikingly similar to those of in situ and invasive forms of breast cancer. [10],[16] Large series and molecular and genetic studies are needed to define the exact role of CCL without atypia in breast cancer.

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