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   2009| January-March  | Volume 52 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 6, 2009

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Quality control in the histopathology laboratory: An overview with stress on the need for a structured national external quality assessment scheme
Jayaram N Iyengar
January-March 2009, 52(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44951  PMID:19136768
The concept of quality control in histopathology is relatively young and less well understood. Like in other disciplines of laboratory medicine, the concept of quality and its control is applicable to pre analytical, analytical and post analytical activities. Assessment of both precision and accuracy performances is possible by appropriate internal and external quality control and assessment schemes. This article is a review of all processes that achieve quality reporting in histopathology. There is a special focus on external quality assessment - a scheme that lacks organization on a national level in our country. Statistical data derived from a small scale external quality assurance program is also analyzed along with recommendations to organize an effective national scheme with the participation of authorized zonal centers.
  50,152 3,324 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
CD20 positivity in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma: Diagnostic challenge or targeting opportunity
Muhammad Abrar Barakzai, Shahid Pervez
January-March 2009, 52(1):6-9
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44952  PMID:19136769
Background: It is now well established that Hodgkin cells are clonal B cells with a CD30 and CD15 phenotype. However, on immunohistochemistry, in our experience and the experience of others, CD20 positivity in an otherwise typical classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma is not uncommon and if associated with CD15 negativity poses a potential diagnostic trap and is likely to be called B-NHL. Objective: To assess the frequency of B-cell related antigens CD20 and CD79a in classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Materials and Methods: A total of 91 consecutive cases of classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma were analyzed for co-expression of CD20 and CD79a. Both males and females of all ages were included in this study. All cases of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's Lymphoma were excluded. All the cases were stained with a panel of antibodies including LCA, CD20, CD79a, CD30, CD15, CD3, EMA and Alk. Protein. Results: All 91 cases of classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma showed negativity for LCA and positivity for CD30. Eighteen cases (19.8%) showed distinct membrane staining with CD20 in most of the large atypical cells. However, out of these, only 7 cases (7.7%) showed CD79a co-expression, which was largely focal. CD15 negativity with CD20 positivity was seen in 7 (7.7%) cases of otherwise typical classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Conclusions/Recommendations: CD20 expression is frequent in classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma and our results are in consensus with reported literature on this subject. In these cases, LCA negativity of large cells was extremely useful in clinching the right diagnosis.
  16,862 1,293 3
CASE REPORTS
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast
Kafil Akhtar, Sufian Zaheer, S Shamshad Ahmad, M Jaseem Hassan
January-March 2009, 52(1):71-73
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44970  PMID:19136787
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is rare-only about 30 cases have been reported in literature. Immunohistochemical examination showing expression of chromogranin and/or synaptophysin confirms evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation. Usually foci of neuroendocrine differentiation can be seen in breast carcinoma and are reported to be present in about 2-5% of breast cancer cases. Here, we report a case of breast carcinoma in which most of the areas studied on the tissue section showed neuroendocrine differentiation.
  9,456 533 13
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Transport and storage of sputum specimen by using cetylpyridinium chloride for isolation of mycobacteria
Nita Pal, Babita Sharma, Bharti Malhotra, Suman Rishi
January-March 2009, 52(1):59-61
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44966  PMID:19136783
Of the 191 sputum specimens that were collected from pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 78.65% (140/178) specimens were culture positive when processed within 48 h by the NaOH method. The culture positivity in the same specimen that were stored with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and processed after 7-8 days was 70.22% (125/178), whereas those stored without CPC and processed by the NaOH method was 46.62% (83/178). The difference in number of positive cultures obtained before storage and after storage (without CPC) was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Culture positivity by the CPC method was comparable with that of NaOH method before storage and the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.35).
  9,244 307 2
PNH revisited: Clinical profile, laboratory diagnosis and follow-up
PK Gupta, VD Charan, H Kumar
January-March 2009, 52(1):38-41
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44960  PMID:19136777
Background: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, nocturnal hemoglobinuria and thrombophila. This acquired disease caused by a deficiency of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins on the hematopoietic cells is uncommon in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed with PNH in the past 1 year were collected. Clinical data (age, gender, various presenting symptoms), treatment information and follow-up data were collected from medical records. Results of relevant diagnostic tests were documented i.e., urine analysis, Ham's test, sucrose lysis test and sephacryl gel card test (GCT) for CD55 and CD59. Results: A total of 5 patients were diagnosed with PNH in the past 1 year. Presenting symptoms were hemolytic anemia (n=4) and bone marrow failure (n=1). A GCT detected CD59 deficiency in all erythrocytes in 4 patients and CD55 deficiency in 2 patients. A weak positive PNH test for CD59 was seen in 1 patient and a weak positive PNH test for CD55 was seen in 3 patients. All patients were negative by sucrose lysis test. Ham's test was positive in two cases. Patients were treated with prednisolone and/or androgen and 1 patient with aplastic anemia was also given antithymocyte globulin. A total of 4 patients responded with a partial recovery of hematopoiesis and 1 patient showed no recovery. None of the patients received a bone marrow transplant. Conclusion: The study highlights the diagnostic methods and treatment protocols undertaken to evaluate the PNH clone in a developing country where advanced methods like flowcytometry immunophenotyping (FCMI) and bone marrow transplants are not routinely available.
  7,348 702 -
Congenital rubella and cytomegalovirus infections in and around Chandigarh
Mini P Singh, Shamma Arora, Anindita Das, Baijayantimala Mishra, Radha Kanta Ratho
January-March 2009, 52(1):46-48
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44962  PMID:19136779
Aims: This study has analyzed the role of rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in infections of children and pregnant women. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. Data from blood samples from pregnant women (asymptomatic and also women with obstetric problems) and children (suspected of intrauterine infections) that were received in the laboratory over a period of 8 years were analysed. Materials and Methods: The samples were tested for rubella- and CMV-specific IgM antibodies by capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In children, the overall positivity for rubella- and CMV-specific IgM antibodies was 2.8% and 12.5%, respectively. In asymptomatic pregnant females, rubella positivity was 0.7% while in women with obstetric complications it was 3.4%. IgM antibody positivity in cases of CMV was 7.8% in both asymptomatic pregnant women and also in women with obstetric complications. Conclusions: The study indicated that infection with CMV is more common than the rubella virus. The incidence of rubella has reduced over the past few years. Hence, screening for rubella infection may be reserved for women with obstetric complications only. The routine screening for CMV among all antenatal cases is a debatable issue
  6,874 608 8
Inducible clindamycin resistance among clinical isolates of staphylococci
AM Ciraj, P Vinod, G Sreejith, K Rajani
January-March 2009, 52(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44963  PMID:19136780
Introduction: Clinical failure of clindamycin therapy has been reported due to multiple mechanisms that confer resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics. This study was undertaken to detect the presence of inducible clindamycin resistance among clinical isolates of staphylococci. Materials and Methods: The detection of inducible clindamycin resistance was performed by D-test using erythromycin and clindamycin discs as per CDC guidelines. Results: Among the 244 clinical isolates of staphylococci studied, 32 (13.1%) showed inducible clindamycin resistance and belonged to the MLSBi phenotype. Among the MLS B i phenotypes, 10 isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (38.4% of the total MRSA), 16 were methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (12.9% of the total MSSA) and 6 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (6.3% of the total CONS). Conclusion: The test for inducible resistance to clindamycin should be included in the routine antibiotic susceptibility testing, as it will help in guiding therapy.
  6,480 752 15
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Siderophore production by uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Manjula A Vagrali
January-March 2009, 52(1):126-127
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44988  PMID:19136808
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequently encountered problems in ambulatory medicine. The present study was designed to determine siderophore production as the urovirulence factor of Escherichia coli isolated from the patients of UTI. A total of 160 strains of E. coli isolated from urine of patients with clinically diagnosed UTI were included in the study and 50 fecal isolates of E. coli, siderophore production was seen in 156 (97.5%). In 50 fecal isolates, siderophore production was seen in 2 (4%). Siderophore production has been shown to be more frequent in E. coli from patients with UTI, than in fecal isolates. The results suggest that siderophore production positive strains can be considered as UPEC. Thus, although a great deal has been learned regarding E. coli virulence mechanisms in UTI, much remains to be learned and the practical application of our growing understanding of E. coli virulence factors to the prevention and treatment of UTI has to be continued.
  6,321 637 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A series of 126 cases
Sushma Kashinath Gabhane, Mrunamayi Nishikant Kotwal, Sudhakar K Bobhate
January-March 2009, 52(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44958  PMID:19136775
By convention, soft tissue tumors include the peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) although they arise from neuroectoderm. PNSTs display a wide spectrum of morphology and biological behavior. Malignant transformation in benign tumors, especially neurofibroma, is an acknowledged phenomenon.This article describes clinico-pathological features of 126 PNSTs with their morphological variants and those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) encountered in a single center over a 6-year period. Benign PNSTs were more common [118 (93.65%)] when compared with their malignant counterparts [8 (6.34%)]. Histological variants including plexiform schwannomas and diffuse, plexiform and pigmented forms of neurofibromas, though rare, were observed. Eleven (8.73%) patients with NF1 showed a strong association with plexiform neurofibroma. A malignant transformation in pre-existing neurofibroma was seen in 1 patient with NF1. This series highlights the clinico-pathological spectrum of PNSTs, their morphological variants and the incidence of associated NF1. The importance of detecting plexiform variants lies in their vastly different prognostic implications particularly when occurring in the setting of NF1
  5,906 548 11
Bacterial vaginosis with special reference to anaerobes
AH Sumati, NK Saritha
January-March 2009, 52(1):56-58
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44965  PMID:19136782
Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and to estimate the prevalence of anaerobic organisms in vaginal discharge of women suffering from bacterial vaginosis. Settings and Design: Patients attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a Medical College Hospital. A one year cross-sectional study. Methods and Materials: High vaginal swabs taken from 174 female patients complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge. BV was diagnosed by clinical composite criteria and by gram stain. Anaerobes were isolated and identified from the discharge. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test, with level of significance set at a value of P<0.05. Results: BV was diagnosed in 68.39% of the cases by using clinical composite criteria and in 58.4% of the cases by gram stain. Anaerobic culture isolation of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 174 cases 143 (82.65%) were culture positive for anaerobes. Bacteroides were significantly raised in BV as compared with non bacterial vaginosis (NBV; <0.05%). Conclusions: Anaerobic bacteria are important pathogens in the causation of bacterial vaginosis along with other aerobic organisms. Bacteroides and peptostreptococci are significantly raised in BV.
  5,520 512 2
Trends in antimicrobial resistance of fecal shigella and Salmonella isolates in Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Taghi Hghi Ashtiani, Maryam Monajemzadeh, Leila Kashi
January-March 2009, 52(1):52-55
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44964  PMID:19136781
Context: The resistance of bacteria to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing as well as developed countries. Resistance has emerged even to newer, more potent antimicrobial agents. The present study was therefore undertaken to report resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in 2487 stool culture isolates in a tertiary care hospital between 1996 and 2000 and 2001 and 2005. Materials and Methods: During 1996 to 2005, 31776 fecal samples were collected from all patients having diarrhea aged >1 month to 14 years old. Microbiology records were reviewed and information on each isolate regarding its antimicrobial susceptibility profile was collected and recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, Version 11.5 software. Results: Of the positive fecal cultures, 1329 (53.43%) of the isolates were Shigella spp and 700 (28.14%) of the isolates were Salmonella spp. Resistance to antimicrobial agents increased among most of the pathogens between 2001 and 2005. An increase in the rate of resistance was observed in Shigella spp for kanamycin (from 11 to 37%) and ceftazidime (from 1 to 9.9%) and among Salmonella spp. for nalidixic acid (from 9.2 to 42.3%) and ceftazidime (from 3 to 23.4%). Conclusions: Routine surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibilities to all classes of clinically used agents is necessary to detect resistance trends in different parts of world, detecting the emergence of new resistance mechanisms that guide infection control measures and public health guidelines; such trends may help in identifying outbreaks of resistant organisms. Such a check seems to be the best way to find appropriate antibiotic regimens
  5,106 351 24
CASE REPORTS
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction: A case report and review of literature
S Balamurugan, B Rajasekar, R Ramesh Rao
January-March 2009, 52(1):69-70
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44969  PMID:19136786
Granulomatous reactions have been reported in association with lymphomas, more often with Hodgkins disease than with Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. Not many reports are available on the association of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with sarcoid-type granuloma. Herein, we report a case of an elderly female with generalized lymphadenopathy who had a florid granulomatous reaction almost masking the lymphoma cells in the lymph node biopsy. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis.
  5,183 223 -
Primary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the vulva: Report of a case and brief review of the literature
Zenggang Pan, Sanjeev Sharma, Poonam Sharma
January-March 2009, 52(1):65-68
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44968  PMID:19136785
Primary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the vulva is rare. Fifteen cases of primary cutaneous vulvar LCH have been reported in English literature. We report an additional case of LCH confined to the vulva. In this article, we describe the clinical presentation, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings of vulvar LCH that are helpful to both gynecologists and pathologists in the diagnosis of this entity. We briefly discuss the pathogenesis of LCH. The debate whether LCH is a reactive or neoplastic entity is still ongoing.
  5,070 236 15
Bilateral sertoli-leydig cell tumor of the ovary: A rare case report
Kiran Alam, Veena Maheshwari, Seema Rashid, Shruti Bhargava
January-March 2009, 52(1):97-99
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44981  PMID:19136796
Sertoli leydig cell tumors also known as arrhenoblastoma, are a rare member of the sex cord-stromal tumor group of ovarian and testicular cancers, comprising less than 1% of all ovarian tumors, which occur in young adults and are almost always unilateral. We hereby report a case of a 17-year-old female presenting with a short history of irregular menses and an abdominal lump, which was histologically proven to be a bilateral sertoli leydig cell tumor of the ovary, an exceptionally rare entity in itself.
  4,977 303 2
Hemoglobin E disorders in Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Shashikant C.U Patne, Jyoti Shukla
January-March 2009, 52(1):110-112
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44991  PMID:19136801
The distribution of hemoglobin E (α2β2 26Glu®Lys ) is mostly restricted to Northeastern India. While evaluating the patients of jaundice, we came across two cases of hemoglobin E (Hb E) disorders. The first case is in a 22-year-old Bengali male and the second case of Hb E/β thalassemia in a 5-year-old Hindu boy. The family study revealed Hb E trait in both the parents of Case 1, whereas in Case 2, the father was found to have Hb E trait and the mother had β -thalassemia minor, thus confirming the diagnosis. Herein, we present the laboratory diagnosis and comparative data of the spectrum of Hb E disorders (i.e., heterozygous Hb E trait, homozygous Hb E disease and compound heterozygous Hb E/β -thalassemia) that was found in our index cases and their parents.
  4,876 377 3
Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of parotid gland: A rare occurrence
N Arathi, Atul M Bage
January-March 2009, 52(1):103-105
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44985  PMID:19136798
Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare salivary gland malignant tumor of low aggressiveness, commonly occurring in minor salivary glands. Its occurrence in major salivary gland has been documented albeit rarely. The striking histological feature is architectural diversity combined with benign cytologic features. We report a case of PLGA arising from left parotid in a 25-year-old male patient. On light microscopy, varied patterns were seen .The cells were uniform with bland nuclei. Neural invasion was noted.
  4,865 334 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
IgA nephropathy in Kerala, India: A retrospective study
B Kumari Chandrika
January-March 2009, 52(1):14-16
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44954  PMID:19136771
This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of IgA nephropathy in Kerala. No published data are available in literature from this part of India. This study included 1592 renal biopsies received from all parts of Kerala over a 2-year period. The age of the subjects ranged from 5 to 78 years old with a peak incidence in the third decade of life. The male:female ratio was 1.2:1. A total of 60% of the cases had presented with hematuria. Direct immunoflourescence was performed using specific antibodies for IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C1q. Light microscopic studies with special stains namely PAS, silver and trichrome were also done. A total of 227 cases (14.26% of all renal biopsies) were diagnosed as IgA excluding 12 cases of Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (12.74% in the first year and 15.52% in the second year). The prevalence of IgA nephropathy appears to be increasing in Kerala
  4,764 383 10
CASE REPORTS
Myoepithelioma of soft tissue
Mukhta R Pai, Ramadas Naik, Ramachandra Kamath, Dilasma Magar
January-March 2009, 52(1):100-102
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44983  PMID:19136797
Myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors involving deep subcutaneous and subfascial soft tissues of limb or limb girdle are rare lesions as against salivary lesions that are well established conditions. Here, we report a 22-year-old female who presented with painful hard swelling in the left gluteal region of 1½ year duration. MRI showed a large ill-defined heterogeneous mass lesion measuring about 7-8 cm. in the left sacral region eroding the left sacroiliac region and left sacroiliac joint. With a clinical diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, the tumor with the surrounding tissue was resected in segments at surgery. Histomorphology revealed nests, sheets and cords of round to spindled cells with extensive squamous metaplasia in a myxoid to fibrous stroma. These cells extensively infiltrated muscle and bone. The tumor cells expressed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and S-100.
  4,780 263 5
Osteomyelitis of the mandible due to Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans
Beena Antony, Shaji Thomas, SC Chandrashekar, M Sudeep Kumar, Veena Kumar
January-March 2009, 52(1):115-116
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44994  PMID:19136803
Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans is a capnoic gram negative coccobacilli known to produce juvenile periodontitis. This organism was isolated in pure culture from an unusual case of osteomyelitis of the mandible. The patient was treated with tetracycline, which is the drug of choice for A. actinomycetemcomitans and the clinical response improved. From our limited review of the literature, it appears that this is the first case of osteomyelitis due to A.actinomycetemcomitans reported in India.
  4,569 368 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of endoscopic biopsy in gastric lesions with a special reference to the significance of mast cell density
Sumana Mukherjee, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Chanda Dutta, Aparna Bhattacharya, Rupam Karmakar, Gopinath Barui
January-March 2009, 52(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44956  PMID:19136773
Various studies have shown the role of mast cells in chronic inflammatory states and in tumor growth. The study is designed to have an idea of the relationship of mast cell density (MCD) to gastric ulcer and cancer, to verify whether mast cell accumulation occurred in the two conditions especially in Indian patients and thus postulate that therapeutic strategies against mast cell mediators could be useful in treatment. Also, we want to review literature and attempt to explain our findings. A total of 240 patients, who underwent their first endoscopy and biopsy for a span of 21/2 years were studied retrospectively. Out of these, 210 cases that were either gastric ulcers or cancer were chosen for this MCD study. Biopsies were sectioned and stained routinely. Toluidine blue stain and copper grid was used to calculate MCD. Student's t-Test was used to calculate the statistical significance of MCD. MCD in benign ulcers was much higher than in control subjects. MCD in well-differentiated cancers showed MCD higher than control. Poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma showed lower MCD than well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. It was concluded that the accumulation of mast cells in gastric ulcers is an inflammatory response. MCD is increased in well-differentiated gastric cancers, which may be a mast cell mediated immune response or mast cells may have a role in tumor angiogenesis and produce factors for tumor progression. Poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma apparently lacks mast cell mediated anti-tumor response in some unexplained way.
  4,346 381 11
CASE REPORTS
Secretory carcinoma arising in radial scars of the breast: A case report and review of literature
Santosh Menon, Tanuja Shet, Anusheel Munshi, Rajendra Badwe
January-March 2009, 52(1):83-85
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44974  PMID:19136791
Radial scars or complex sclerosing lesions are common benign lesions in the breast with characteristic radiological and pathological features. The pathological diagnosis of carcinoma arising in this setting requires careful amalgamation of clinical, radiological and morphological details. Ancillary techniques like immunohistochemistry aid in the diagnosis. We report an unusual case of a secretory carcinoma arising in the background of a radial scar.
  4,491 216 -
Transient thrombocytosis with megathrombocytes in a case of acute myeloblastic leukemia
Mrinalini Kotru, Madhu Batra, Sunil Gomber, Usha Rusia
January-March 2009, 52(1):113-114
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44992  PMID:19136802
Thrombocytosis is commonly seen in reactive conditions and certain neoplastic states, such as chronic myeloproliferative disorders. It is rarely seen in acute leukemia. A 12-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia (FAB M2) in remission presented with pyoderma. Her hemogram revealed anemia (Hb-6.4g/dl), leucopenia (TLC - 1.2 x 109/L) and thrombocytosis (platelet count- 580 x 109/L). A peripheral blood film showed numerous abnormally large platelets with few atypical cells. The thrombocytosis subsided with the clearance of infection but atypical cells persisted. One month later, she relapsed. Cytogenetic analysis revealed variable results (trisomy 9 and deletion 3). This case has been presented because thrombocytosis is rare in AML and its appearance calls for a close follow-up.
  4,449 197 -
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with divergent differentiation
TN Suresh, ML Harendra Kumar, C.S.B.R Prasad, R Kalyani, K Borappa
January-March 2009, 52(1):74-76
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44971  PMID:19136788
A malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is an uncommon spindle cell sarcoma accounting for approximately 5% of all soft tissue sarcomas. A 55-year-old female with a right suprarenal tumor showed MPNST with additional foci of epithelioid, rhabdomyoblastic, osteogenic and lipogenic differentiation. Although the capacity of MPNST to undergo epithelioid, rhabdomyoblastic, osteogenic and very rarely lipogenic differentiation is reported in literature, the occurrence of all these differentiation in one case has not been described in literature before. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second MPNST case with lipomatous differentiation
  4,345 269 6
Central neurocytoma in the vermis of the cerebellum
Neelkamal Kapoor, Ajay Gandhi, AK Chaurasia
January-March 2009, 52(1):108-109
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44989  PMID:19136800
In neuropathology, anatomic landmarks and topographic relationships bear particularly on issues of differential diagnosis. A case of central neurocytoma of the vermis of the cerebellum is being reported in this article. A 45-year-old male with features of hydrocephalous and a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion was diagnosed as having central neurocytoma upon a microscopy of Hematoxylene and Eosin stained sections. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive immunohistochemical reaction for Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) and Synaptophysin. This case report is being made to emphasize that a high index of suspicion is required even for reporting neuropathology where the site does not match the conventional location of the lesion seen and also to emphasize the importance of immunohistochemistry in proving such unusually located lesions
  4,400 203 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparative study of cervical smears in an urban Hospital in India and a population-based screening program in Mauritius
Kaustubh Mulay, Meenakshi Swain, Sushma Patra, Swarnalata Gowrishankar
January-March 2009, 52(1):34-37
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44959  PMID:19136776
Objective: To study cervical smear abnormalities in urban women in India and women in Mauritius and to compare the results in the two groups. Study Design: An analysis of 6010 cervical smears taken as part of routine check-ups in an urban hospital was done and an analysis of 10,000 cervical smears taken from women participating in a National Cancer Screening Program in Mauritius was done. Emphasis was put on cervical epithelial cell abnormalities and the results in the two populations are compared with that of similar studies in other parts of the world. Results: Non specific inflammation formed 19.6% and 25.34% of the smears in the Indian and Mauritian groups, respectively (with specific infection forming 6.05% and 15.08%). The epithelial abnormalities constituted 1.392% of the Indian group and 0.47% of the Mauritian group. The difference was statistically significant in the atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance (AGUS) group. Conclusions: The prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) is similar to that in the developed world.
  4,202 396 6
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Group A Streptococcus meningitis: Microbiological evidence clinches the issue
Rajeev Thakur, Smita Sarma, Kiran Bala
January-March 2009, 52(1):132-133
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44984  PMID:19136813
  4,146 207 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Seroprevalence of hepatitis viruses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus
Manisha Jain, Anita Chakravarti, Vikas Verma, Preena Bhalla
January-March 2009, 52(1):17-19
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44955  PMID:19136772
Objective: The co-infection of Hepatitis B and C viruses with HIV accelerates disease progression and also has an effect on the management of patients infected with HIV. The prevalence of HIV co-infection with hepatitis viruses varies widely. This study is planned to evaluate the prevalence of HIV co-infection with Hepatitis B and C viruses in North India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1178 patients enrolled in the ART center were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of HBV and HCV on the basis of the presence of HBsAg and anti-HCV markers. Results: In patients infected with HIV, the prevalence of co-infection with HBV was 9.9% (117/1178), the prevalence of co-infection with HCV was 6.3% (74/1178) and the prevalence co-infection with both HBV and HCV was ~1% (12/1178). Discussion: The prevalence rate of HBV and HCV are increasing in patients infected with HIV. Having acquired the knowledge about the importance of such a co-infection, it is essential that all the patients infected with HIV be screened for HBV and HCV co-infection.
  3,737 478 12
CASE REPORTS
Empyema thoracis due to actinomyces odontolyticus
DR Mohan, Beena Antony, GM Shivakumarappa
January-March 2009, 52(1):120-121
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44995  PMID:19136805
Actinomyces odontolyticus has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen causing systemic infections. A case of empyema thoracis due to this organism in a 68-year-old male is reported here. The patient did not have any underlying disease or immunosuppression. The organism was isolated from his oral flora also. Eight cases of thoracopulmonary infections due to A. odontolyticus have been reported from the western countries, but none from India.
  3,930 163 1
Primary laryngeal leishmaniasis: A rare case report
Bipin Kumar, Anand Ghimire, Smriti Karki, Paricha Upadhyaya
January-March 2009, 52(1):62-64
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44967  PMID:19136784
Laryngeal leishmaniasis is extremely rare. We report a case of primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in a 70-year-old male who was admitted with complaints of gradual progressive hoarseness of the voice, dyspnea, cough for the past 3 months and noisy breathing for the past 5 days. An X-ray of the soft tissue of the neck showed a prevertebral soft tissue mass causing narrowing of the airway at the C6-C7 vertebral level. A computerized tomography (CT) scan showed a soft tissue mass in the subglottic region causing significant narrowing of the airway. A direct laryngoscopy showed a pinkish-white, friable mass involving the subglottic region and the anterior half of the vocal cords. With the clinical suspicion of malignancy, an endoscopic biopsy was done. A histopathological examination showed diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in subepithelium with numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of histiocytes.
  3,828 224 8
Primary high-grade testicular leiomyosarcoma
Mohan Kumar, Shashikant C.U Patne, Sandip Kumar, VK Shukla
January-March 2009, 52(1):91-93
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44977  PMID:19136794
We herein present an extremely rare occurrence of primary intratesticular leiomyosarcoma. A 65-year-old patient presented with painless enlargement of the right testis. A high inguinal orchiectomy was done. Histopathological examination of the excised mass was consistent with high-grade leiomyosarcoma. Pertinent literature is reviewed and the importance of excluding the germ cell tumor and the paratesticular neoplasm is emphasized.
  3,795 250 5
Bilateral benign non functional struma ovarii with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome
Vandana Rana, V Srinivas, S Bandyopadhyay, SK Ghosh, Yashpal Singh
January-March 2009, 52(1):94-96
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44978  PMID:19136795
Bilateral presentation of benign Struma ovarii is rare and has not been reported frequently in published literature. A 70-year-old postmenopausal female presented with progressive ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and elevated CA-125 levels. The contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a heterogenous mass in the left adnexa. These findings were suspicious for an ovarian malignancy. After surgery the diagnosis of non functional, bilateral benign Struma ovarii was made. Struma ovarii is a specialized ovarian teratoma composed predominantly of mature thyroid tissue. It is associated with pleural effusion and ascites (Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome) in 5% of cases. The combination of struma ovarii and elevated CA-125 levels has been reported infrequently. This is a rare case of bilateral benign struma ovarii associated with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome and elevated CA-125 levels. Surgical excision of the ovarian masses induced immediate resolution of the ascites and pleural effusion and a reduction of the serum CA-125 level.
  3,805 225 8
Glomus tumor of the stomach
RB Batra, Anurag Mehta, PV Rama Mohan, KJ Singh
January-March 2009, 52(1):77-79
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44972  PMID:19136789
Gastric glomus tumors are rare neoplasms. We report here a case of gastric glomus tumor in a 25-year-old female who presented with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Clinically and on gross examination, the tumor was suspected to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed it to be a glomus tumor.
  3,746 267 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Liver needle biopsy in Iraninan pediatric patients: Diagnostic significance and pattern of liver diseases
Maryam Monajemzadeh, Hedieh Moradi Tabriz, Fatemeh Mahjoub, Gholamhossein Fallahi, Fatemeh Farahmand
January-March 2009, 52(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44953  PMID:19136770
We aimed at determining the pattern of liver disease in the Iranian children referred to the Medical Center of Children affiliated with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted over 2 years, 425 liver needle biopsies were sent to the pathology laboratory of our center. Slides were prepared from paraffin-embedded blocks, stained by routine H & E and special stains and were then reviewed. The frequency of each disorder, separately and in combination with the age group or gender of the patients was calculated and compared with other similar studies. Results: The male to female ratio was 1.42:1. The age range was between 1 month and 18 years old and 41.4% were less than 2 years old. The most common histological diagnosis was iron overload due to major thalassemia (17.5%) followed by biliary atresia (9.7%), no significant pathologic change (8.7%), neonatal hepatitis (8.7%), chronic hepatitis (8.5%), cirrhosis (6.5%), metabolic disease (5.5%) and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (5%). Results of the hemosiderosis grading in patients with thalassemia revealed no or minimal, mild, medium, or marked increase in 10%, 27.1%, 10%, 21.4% and 31.5% of the cases, respectively and the degree of iron deposition rose in parallel with age and also the stage of fibrosis (p<0.05). Conclusion: A liver biopsy is a useful and practical tool for the appropriate diagnosis of pediatric liver diseases. Also, we found that in non thalassemic children, biliary atresia, chronic hepatitis and neonatal hepatitis, in the stated order, are the most prevalent histologic diagnoses in Iranian pediatrics.
  3,592 361 5
CASE REPORTS
Reactive perforating collagenosis
Mukesh Kumar Yadav, BC Sangal, Puneet Bhargav, P Rishi Jai, Mukul Goyal
January-March 2009, 52(1):106-107
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44987  PMID:19136799
Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.
  3,628 222 3
Choristoma of the base of the tongue
Venkatesh R Naik, W.A.R Wan Faiziah, M Yusri Musa
January-March 2009, 52(1):86-87
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44975  PMID:19136792
Choristoma is a benign tumor where new bone formation occurs. It occurs exclusively in the flat bones of the skull and face. These are slow growing lesions that are usually completely asymptomatic and only present when there is a disruption in the function of the organ due to its large size as it grows. These choristomas can rarely occur in soft tissues especially in the head, eye, tongue, or extremities. Choristomas of the soft tissues are very rare. Only 61 cases of choristomas of the tongue have been reported in literature. Here we report a case of choristoma in the base of the tongue in a 25-year-old Malay female.
  3,332 255 5
Extra genital heterologous malignant mixed mullerian tumor of primary peritoneal origin
MR Naniwadekar, SR Desai, RG Ranade, SR Kanetkar
January-March 2009, 52(1):88-90
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44976  PMID:19136793
The case of an extragenital heterologous malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) of primary peritoneal origin occurring in a 76-year-old female is presented. A large tumor was seen between the uterus and rectosigmoid occupying the entire pelvis. The uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries were uninvolved. The tumor was composed of carcinomatous areas showing endometrioid and serous papillary differentiation and sarcomatous areas showing cartilaginous differentiation. The extragenital primary MMMTs of the female peritoneum are thought to originate from the secondary müllerian system. This case is presented for its rarity. To the best our knowledge, this is the first case of extragenital MMMT of primary peritoneal origin in Indian literature.
  3,226 180 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Utility of fibronectin in immuocytochemial differentiation of reactive mesothelial cells from metastatic malignant cells in serous effusions
Chetna Agarwal, Manjula Jain
January-March 2009, 52(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44957  PMID:19136774
Cytological evaluation of serous effusions often poses difficulties to the pathologists. This study was designed to assess the utility of fibronectin as a mesothelial cell marker and evaluate its use along with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a short panel to aid in the differentiation of reactive mesothelial cells from metastatic adenocarcinoma cells in serous effusions. Forty serous effusion cases from clinically benign cases and forty from clinically malignant cases with a known primary were included in the study. After routine cytological evaluation, the cases were categorized as benign, suspicious and malignant. All the cases were studied for fibronectin and CEA immunostaining using APAAP technique. In the present study, fibronectin emerged as a 100% specific and 93.4% sensitive marker for mesothelial cells. CEA immunostaining was seen in 80% cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma in serous effusions. Mesothelial cells did not show any CEA positivity. Short panel of CEA and fibronectin aided in reaching a correct diagnosis in three out of five cytologically suspicious cases.
  2,963 211 3
CASE REPORTS
Isolation of Salmonella paratyphi A from renal abscess
Sanjay D'Cruz, Suman Kochhar, Sandeep Chauhan, Varsha Gupta
January-March 2009, 52(1):117-119
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44996  PMID:19136804
Intrarenal abscesses remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well as a diagnostic dilemma because a plethora of microorganisms can cause this condition. A definitive diagnosis is made by demonstrating the organisms from the aspirate and the success or failure of therapy depends upon the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Enteric fever is a multisystem disorder caused by invasive strains of salmonella. Salmonellosis continues to be a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Classic enteric fever is caused by S. typhi and usually less severe enteric fevers are caused by S. paratyphi A, B, or C. However, at times S. paratyphi is capable of causing serious and often life-threatening infections like infective endocarditis, pericarditis, empyma, sino-venous thrombosis, osteomyelitis, meningitis, bone marrow infiltration, hepatitis and pancreatitis. There are anecdotal case reports in world literature of abscesses being caused by this organism. Renal involvement like bacteriuria, nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure have been reported due to S. parayphi A. S. paratyphi A has never been implicated in renal abscess, we report one such case that was managed successfully with medical therapy.
  2,998 170 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The absence of JC virus antigens in Indian children with medulloblastomas
Rakesh Kumar Vasishta, Neelam Pasricha, Avindra Nath, Shobha Sehgal
January-March 2009, 52(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44961  PMID:19136778
Background: The human polyoma virus, also known as the JC virus (JCV), replicates predominantly in the oligodendrocytes, the myelin producing cells in the central nervous system and results in the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) especially in immunosuppressed patients with AIDS. Several investigators have also documented the presence of the viral genome and early and late antigens in a variety of brain tumors particularly in medulloblastomas, gliomas and ependymomas. Reports also indicate the presence of JCV in patients with colon cancer. The T antigen of JCV has been postulated to have oncogenic potential as substantiated by animal experiments. Although JCV infects 80% of the population, there are scant epidemiological studies regarding JCV from India. There are also reports of the low prevalence of PML in patients with AIDS from India and Africa. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate if Indian children with medulloblastomas also show evidence of JCV. Methods: Twenty-two consecutive cases of medulloblastomas were investigated for the presence of T antigen and agnoprotein of JCV in biopsy specimens by immunohistochemistry. Antibodies to the agnoprotein antigen raised in rabbits and a monoclonal antibody against SV40 T antigen raised in mice that cross-reacts with JCV T antigen were used. Results: Out of 22 patients, 4 had desmoplastic tumors while the rest had classical tumors. All children were below the age of 10. Results indicate that while PML tissues showed consistent immunostaining both with antibody to T antigen and agnoprotein antibody, none of the tumors showed any positive staining for JC viral antigens. Conclusion: JCV antigens could not be detected by immunohistochemistry in the tumor tissues of Indian children with medulloblastomas.
  2,955 177 6
CASE REPORTS
Subperiodic, asymptomatic microfilaremia in an adult male from Mysore: A nonendemic area
MN Sumana, K Jayashree, BJ Subhash Chandra, M Girish
January-March 2009, 52(1):122-124
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44993  PMID:19136806
Wuchereria bancrofti is found throughout tropics and subtropics like Asia, Pacific islands, Africa, areas of South America and Caribbean basin. In all these areas, except Pacific islands, microfilaria occurs in the periodic form, in which case the microfilaria are found in large numbers in the peripheral blood during night. In the Pacific islands, they occur in the subperiodic form, i.e., microfilaria are present in the peripheral blood at all times and reach the maximum level of parasitemia in the afternoon. Microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi occurring in India displays a nocturnal periodicity, appearing in large numbers at night. This is the biological adaptation to the nocturnal biting habits of the vector mosquitoes. The maximum density in blood is reported between 10 PM and 2 AM. Here is a case report of asymptomatic microfilaremia showing subperiodicity, which is very unusual in India.
  2,678 144 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Primary peritoneal liposarcoma in a middle-aged patient
Shirin Niroomanesh, Fatemeh Mirzaie, Alireza Bateni
January-March 2009, 52(1):131-132
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44982  PMID:19136812
  2,608 137 -
CASE REPORTS
Infection potpourri: Are we watching?
Rama Chaudhry, Anubhav Pandey, Anupam Das, Shobha Broor
January-March 2009, 52(1):125-125
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44990  PMID:19136807
Population explosion, frequent travel and urbanization have led to certain changes in the environment, which are conducive for the survival of multiple pathogens and their transmission vehicle in the same niche. Therefore, there are more chances of acquiring multiple infections at the same time with overlapping clinical manifestations. We would like to share a case having concurrent infection with four different agents.
  2,408 258 9
Primary osteoliposarcoma of the bone
Michelle De Padua, T.P.S Bhandari, Jairamchander Pingle
January-March 2009, 52(1):80-82
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44973  PMID:19136790
Osteoliposarcoma are rare tumors of the bone. To our knowledge, so far only eight cases have been reported. Some of the reports have referred to these tumors as malignant mesenchymoma. We report a case of a male with osteoliposarcoma of the right femur who presented with pain and restricted movements of the right knee joint. Radiologically, a tumor in the lower end of the right femur was seen extending into the soft tissue. The biopsy was reported as osteosarcoma. The patient received three cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by limb-salvage surgery with provisions for a custom-made prosthesis. A histopathological study of the excision specimen revealed areas of pleomorphic liposarcoma with numerous osteoblasts associated with areas of osteoid surrounded by neoplastic cells. The final diagnosis was osteoliposarcoma. Only 21% tumor necrosis (effects of chemotherapy) was observed. Presently, 26 months following diagnosis, the patient is fine with no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis.
  2,352 180 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Ectopic adrenocortical rest in the wall of the large intestine
Amanjit Bal, Amit Kumar Adhya, JK Mahajan
January-March 2009, 52(1):130-131
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44980  PMID:19136811
  2,317 118 2
Primary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the breast
Michelle De Padua, T.P.S Bhandari
January-March 2009, 52(1):129-130
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44979  PMID:19136810
  1,917 172 4
IMAGE
Pearls from the abdomen
Gumballi Swethadri, Jacqueline Wong
January-March 2009, 52(1):128-128
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.44986  PMID:19136809
  1,354 124 -
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