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   2010| January-March  | Volume 53 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 19, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility
Dushyant Singh Gaur, Manju S Talekar, Ved Prakash Pathak
January-March 2010, 53(1):35-40
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59180  PMID:20090219
Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.
  26,130 1,009 36
Detection of Hb variants and hemoglobinopathies in Indian population using HPLC: Report of 2600 cases
Ritesh Sachdev, Arpita R Dam, Gaurav Tyagi
January-March 2010, 53(1):57-62
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59185  PMID:20090224
Background: Inherited abnormalities of hemoglobin synthesis include a myriad of disorders ranging from thalassemia syndromes to structurally abnormal hemoglobin variants. Identification of these disorders is immensely important epidemiologically and aid in prevention of more serious hemoglobin disorders. Aims: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) forms an important tool for accurate and speedy diagnosis of various hemoglobin disorders. About 2600 cases have been studied for identification of various hemoglobin disorders in Indian population. Material and Methods: The study was performed on BIORAD VARIANT using beta thalassemia short program. Results and conclusion: Abnormal hemoglobin fractions on HPLC were seen in 327 of the 2,600 cases displayed. Of this, the beta thalassemia trait was the predominant abnormality with a total of 232 cases (8.9%). There were 15(0.6%) cases of beta thalassemia major and 16 of thalassemia intermedia. The rest comprised of Hb D Punjab (13 cases; 0.5%), Elevated Hb F (25 cases; 0.9%), Hb E (seven cases including two Hb E homozygous and five Hb E heterozygous), Double heterozygous Hb E-beta thal trait (six cases), Hb Q India (five cases), Double heterozygous Hb Q India -beta thal trait (two cases), Hb S (total cases three including one Hb S homozygous; two Hb S -beta thal trait) and one case each of Hb J Meerut, Hb D-Iran and Hb Lepore trait. Detection of this abnormal hemoglobin, particularly keeping in mind a high prevalence of Hb A2, will help in prevention of more serious hemoglobinopathies including beta thalassemia major. HPLC forms a rapid and accurate tool in early detection and management of various hemoglobin disorders.
  22,655 1,996 20
Activity-based costing methodology as tool for costing in hematopathology laboratory
Sumeet Gujral, Kanchan Dongre, Sonal Bhindare, PG Subramanian, HKV Narayan, Asim Mahajan, Rekha Batura, Chitra Hingnekar, Meenu Chabbria, CN Nair
January-March 2010, 53(1):68-74
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59187  PMID:20090226
Background: Cost analysis in laboratories represents a necessary phase in their scientific progression. Aim: To calculate indirect cost and thus total cost per sample of various tests at Hematopathology laboratory (HPL) Settings and Design: Activity-based costing (ABC) method is used to calculate per cost test of the hematopathology laboratory. Material and Methods: Information is collected from registers, purchase orders, annual maintenance contracts (AMCs), payrolls, account books, hospital bills and registers along with informal interviews with hospital staff. Results: Cost per test decreases as total number of samples increases. Maximum annual expense at the HPL is on reagents and consumables followed by manpower. Cost per test is higher for specialized tests which interpret morphological or flow data and are done by a pathologist. Conclusions: Despite several limitations and assumptions, this was an attempt to understand how the resources are consumed in a large size government-run laboratory. The rate structure needs to be revised for most of the tests, mainly for complete blood counts (CBC), bone marrow examination, coagulation tests and Immunophenotyping. This costing exercise is laboratory specific and each laboratory needs to do its own costing. Such an exercise may help a laboratory redesign its costing structure or at least understand the economics involved in the laboratory management.
  15,260 595 8
Morphological findings in bone marrow biopsy and aspirate smears of visceral kala azar: A review
Kajal Kiran Dhingra, Parul Gupta, Vijay Saroha, Namrata Setia, Nita Khurana, Tejinder Singh
January-March 2010, 53(1):96-100
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59193  PMID:20090232
Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b) one marrow aspirate and biopsy in the department of Pathology in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. Methods and Material: Giemsa stained slides of bone marrow aspirates and hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy slides were reviewed in detail by two competent pathologists. All the findings were tabulated and discussed and comparisons made with the previous similar studies. Results: Hyper cellular marrow, increased lymphocytes and plasma cells, marrow granulomas, hemophagocytosis, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and gelatinous transformation of the marrow were notable features the presence of which together or individually should caution a pathologist to search for Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies in patients especially in a non-endemic zone in a tropical country.
  11,029 579 6
Clinical and cyto-histopathological evaluation of skin lesions with special reference to bullous lesions
Fauziya Sabir, Mehar Aziz, Nishat Afroz, S Sohail Amin
January-March 2010, 53(1):41-46
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59181  PMID:20090220
Aim: Cytopathology of skin has been documented to be useful in the diagnosis of several skin lesions. This study aims to evaluate cytopathology as a quick non-invasive method for early diagnosis of bullous lesions, neoplastic and preneoplastic skin lesions and to correlate the clinical, cytological and histopathological findings of various skin lesions. Materials and Methods: Eighty five patients of skin lesions were included in the study. Skin scraping, Tzanck smears, slit smears and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were done to obtain material for cytological examination. Excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy and punch biopsy were done to obtain tissue for histopathological examination. The slides were stained with routine stains and special stains as and when required. Results: Of the 85 patients, 45 were males and 40 females. The most common non-neoplastic lesions observed were vesicobullous lesions which comprised of 41 cases followed by neoplastic lesions which consisted of 24 cases, of which six were benign and 18 malignant. Concordant results between cytology and histopathology was seen in majority (91.7%) of lesions studied. Conclusion: Cytology (scrape/imprint/slit smears and FNAC), performed skillfully and with perfection, leads to an early diagnosis in majority of the lesions, as the observed cytomorphological features of various skin lesions were fairly distinctive making cytology a fairly sensitive 'patient compliant' technique for rapid diagnosis of skin lesions.
  10,264 783 2
Plasmid profile of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria and correlation with susceptibility to β-lactam drugs
Jyoti Sharma, Pallab Ray, Meera Sharma
January-March 2010, 53(1):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59190  PMID:20090229
Background: Members of family Enterobacteriaceae can acquire resistance to extended spectrum beta lactams by a number of mechanisms; most important being the plasmid encoded extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta lactamase. This study has been designed to look for the presence of plasmids and their correlation with drug resistance. Methods: ESBL production was studied in different gram-negative bacteria and susceptibility testing of ESBL positive isolates was done for various beta lactams, cephalosporins and other commonly used drugs against them. Plasmid DNA isolation of all the ESBL positive strains was done by alkalilysis method. Finally the presence of plasmid was correlated with susceptibility to beta lactam drugs. Results: E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes and A. anitratus harbored multiple plasmids. One plasmid (M.W greater than 21,226 bp) was unanimously present in all the isolates. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between the number of plasmids harbored by an isolate and resistance to various drugs tested.
  9,367 893 5
Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species
VP Baradkar, M Mathur, S Kumar
January-March 2010, 53(1):93-95
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59192  PMID:20090231
Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%); C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%), C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%), C. tropicalis (100 and 100%) and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55%) respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.
  9,200 879 6
High incidence of Epstein Barr virus infection in childhood acute lymphocytic lukemia: A preliminary study
S Sehgal, S Mujtaba, D Gupta, R Aggarwal, RK Marwaha
January-March 2010, 53(1):63-67
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59186  PMID:20090225
Introduction: Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has a unique association with several human malignancies, especially lymphoproliferative disorders, mainly lymphomas in adults. There is paucity of data pertaining to EBV association with various cancers in India . Objective : The study aims to investigate the association of EBV in childhood leukemia. Material and Methods: Patients attending pediatric oncology services of the referral center have been included in the study. Twenty-five consecutive pediatric patients with acute lymphocytic lukemia (ALL) were subjected to EBV studies employing sensitive polymerase chain reaction followed by hybridization for presence of Bam H1-W region of EBV genome and detection of anti Z EBV replication activator (ZEBRA) antibodies using Western blot. Positive control included a case of Burkitt's lymphoma and infectious mononucleosis each. Raji cells were used as positive control with each test. Results: The PCR for EBV was positive in 8/25 patients of ALL. Western blot test using anti ZEBRA antibodies was positive in 5/25(20%) cases of ALL. Considering PCR as the gold standard, 32% of the children with ALL had evidence of active EBV replication. The positive controls were consistently positive. None of the 30 healthy laboratory controls, 22 age matched disease controls, 12 cases of AML and 15 cases of multiple myeloma were positive either by PCR or Western blots assays (P < 0. 01). There was no statistically significant correlation between duration of therapy and EBV positivity (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These studies indicate that a significant number of patients with ALL show evidence of active EBV replication.
  8,999 431 9
Evaluation and comparison of tests to detect methicillin resistant S. aureus
Anila A Mathews, Marina Thomas, B Appalaraju, J Jayalakshmi
January-March 2010, 53(1):79-82
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59189  PMID:20090228
Background and Objectives: Phenotypic methods for detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been compared with the gold standard which, as of now, is by the detection of mecA gene and femA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Discrepancies in detection have an adverse effect on patient management, thereby highlighting the importance of accuracy in detection. Our study aims to evaluate the efficacy of cefoxitin disk diffusion test to detect MRSA and compare it with other phenotypic and molecular methods. Methodology; The study was conducted from June 2006 to December 2007 and included 610 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates obtained from clinical samples. All isolates were tested for MRSA using oxacillin screen agar plates with 6 µg/ml of oxacillin, cefoxitin disk diffusion using 30 µg disk and MIC of oxacillin. Selected isolates (55) were tested for presence of mecA gene and Fem A gene by PCR. Results: Out of 610 isolates, MRSA was identified in 34.09% by cefoxitin disk diffusion, 34.9% by oxacillin screen agar, 34.4% by MIC and 37.3% by oxacillin disk diffusion. When selected isolates were tested with molecular methods, the cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR tests were comparable. Discussion: Prevalence of MRSA (34.09%) is quite high as in other studies. The oxacillin disk diffusion test which was used routinely earlier is showing low specificity (56%). Among all phenotypic methods, cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR alone have similar sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Results of cefoxitin disk diffusion test are in concordance with the PCR for mecA gene. Thus, the test can be an alternative to PCR for detection of MRSA in resource constraint settings.
  7,815 877 11
Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation: Case series and review of literature
Santosh Menon, Prathamesh Pai, Manju Sengar, JP Aggarwal, Shubhada V Kane
January-March 2010, 53(1):28-34
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59179  PMID:20090218
Primary sinonasal tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation (SCND) are uncommon tumors with considerable overlap of histological features. Based on their neuroendocrine differentiation they can be sub categorized into sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC), esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC). The natural history and biological behavior varies in this group of tumors. Hence the histo-morphological diagnosis coupled with grading/staging is important for the prognostication of these tumors. Aim : To study the clinicopathological characteristics of sinonasal neuroendocrine malignancies at our institute. Material and Methods : We searched our institute's pathology database for the period from 2002 to 2007, for the four subcategories of sinonasal tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. Morphological and immunohistochemical features were studied and, grading, staging was done in accordance with standard criteria. The clinical treatment and follow- up data were retrieved from the case files in available cases. Results : A total of 37 cases were retrieved from our database which include 14 cases of SNUC, 14 cases of ENB and nine cases of SNEC. The cases of SNUC were immunopositive for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and weakly for neuron-specific enolase. SNEC showed strong reactivity with epithelial and neuroendocrine markers whereas ENB demonstrated immunoreactivity to synaptophysisn and chromogranin strongly, with weak to negative expression of epithelial markers. All cases of SNUC and SNEC were of high grade and stage whereas 50% of ENB cases were of grade II but high stage tumors. Most of the SNUC and SNEC patients had been treated with multimodality treatment regimens including upfront chemotherapy followed by surgery and loco- regional radiation. In contrast, ENB patients had undergone surgical extirpation followed by radiation therapy in majority of cases. With limited follow-up data, it was observed that four out of five SNUC patients and three out of four SNEC patients developed either loco-regional (three of SNUC and two of SNEC) or distant metastasis (one patient each of SNUC and SNEC). ENB patients also had loco-regional recurrences (five out of seven patients) with a more protracted course but no distant metastases were observed during the follow up in available cases. Conclusion : Sino nasal tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation are a heterogenous group of tumors with overlapping histo-morphological features. They can be distinguished based on immunohistochemical characteristics. Pathological sub categorization is imperative for management and prognostication of these aggressive tumors.
  7,064 513 23
Immunohistochemical study of p16 INK4A and survivin expressions in cervical squamous neoplasm
Geok Chin Tan, Sydee Norlatiffah, N Akmal Sharifah, Ghazali Razmin, M Sidik Shiran, A Zailani Hatta, H Oon Paul-Ng
January-March 2010, 53(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59173  PMID:20090212
Introduction:Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting Malaysian women. Despite the implementation of pap smear screening, many women are still diagnosed only in the advanced stage of cervical cancer. This could partly be due to failure of detection of its precursor lesions; hence the need to search for novel biomarkers to assist in the screening and diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. This study aims to determine the expression of p16INK4A and survivin as possible predictive biomarkers in cervical squamous neoplasm. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study on 201 cases of cervical neoplasm comprising of 129 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 72 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). All samples were evaluated by two independent observers using p16INK4A and survivin monoclonal antibodies. The p16 INK4A expression was graded as negative, focal and diffuse positivity. The intensity for survivin expression was graded as weak, moderate and intense. Results: It is seen that p16 INK4A expression in CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 were 25.4%, 42.9% and 95.9% respectively. Majority of SCC (98.6%) showed p16 INK4A expression. Survivin expressions in CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC were 56.7%, 33.4%, 87.5% and 98.6%. There was a linear relationship between increasing grade of CIN and p16 INK4A expressions. Conclusion: Our study showed that p16 INK4A expressions correlate well with the increasing grade of CIN. Although survivin does not correlate well to the increasing grade of CIN, it could be useful in differentiating CIN 3 from SCC.
  6,376 667 4
CASE REPORTS
Spontaneous perforation of solitary ulcer of transverse colon
Ioannis Galanis, Dimitrios Dragoumis, Thomas Kalogirou, Sotiris Lakis, Rodi Kotakidou, Konstantinos Atmatzidis
January-March 2010, 53(1):138-140
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59207  PMID:20090246
Spontaneous ruptures of the colon and rectum are extremely uncommon clinical entities and always require laparotomy. A 44-year-old female was admitted with a 12-hour history of severe abdominal pain periumbilically and at the right hypochondrium. The patient was immediately transferred to the department of surgery for close surgical observation. Computed tomography (CT) of the entire abdomen performed just before the operation demonstrated thickening of the wall of the ascending colon with pericolic fat stranding. Surgery revealed a perforation at the antimesenteric wall of the transverse colon and segmental colectomy of the transverse colon was performed. The histological evaluation demonstrated a perforated solitary ulcer of the transverse colon. There are only few known etiologic factors concerning spontaneous ruptures of the colon and rectum and usually none of these causative factors can easily be recognised. Their clinical appearance is most of the times acute abdomen and, despite the use of all appropriate diagnostic methods, the diagnosis is usually set postoperatively.
  6,791 120 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Microscopic colitis in patients presenting with chronic diarrhea
Vatsala Misra, SP Misra, Manisha Dwivedi, Premala A Singh, Varsha Agarwal
January-March 2010, 53(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59176  PMID:20090215
Aim: To investigate the prevalence of microscopic colitis among patients presenting with chronic watery diarrhea. Material and Methods: Colonic biopsies from 400 patients presenting with chronic watery diarrhea and other symptoms pertaining to lower gastrointestinal tract were studied. After a detailed clinical history and thorough physical examination full length colonoscopy was done using flexible colonoscope. Colonic biopsies were taken from abnormal and normal areas. Three to five micron thick sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stain to highlight sub epithelial collagen. Results: Fifteen out of 400 (3.7%) colonic biopsies from patients presenting with chronic diarrhea had evidence of microscopic colitis. Five out of fifteen biopsies (33%) were diagnosed as collagenous colitis, 10 biopsies (67%) had evidence of lymphocytic colitis; 14/400(3.5%) histologically normal biopsies were taken as controls to compare various demographic and risk factors. Ten out of 15 patients (67%) were clinically diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome. In the remaining five an infective etiology was suspected. On colonoscopy12/15 (80%) had no abnormality and 3/15 (20%) had mild hyperemia. Conclusion: A possibility of microscopic colitis should be considered while examining colonoscopic biopsy of a patient with chronic watery diarrhea and normal colonoscopy to avoid the misdiagnosis that may affect the treatment of patients
  6,272 490 11
Protein p 16INK4A expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix
Ruchi Gupta, Radhika Srinivasan, Raje Nijhawan, Vanita Suri, Radha Uppal
January-March 2010, 53(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59174  PMID:20090213
The association of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is well recognized. Interaction of HPV oncogenic proteins with cellular regulatory proteins leads to up regulation of p16 INK4A , a CDK inhibitor, which is a biomarker for HPV infection. We investigated p16 expression in CIN and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) which has not been reported in the Indian population previously. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 100 cases with 20 cases each of histologically normal cervical epithelium, CIN1, 2, 3 and invasive SCC for p16 expression was performed by immunohistochemistry using commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody to p16 (clone 6H12). Statistical Analysis: For differences in expression among groups, statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffe. Results: p16 immunoreactivity was found to be both nuclear and/or cytoplasmic. The normal cervical epithelium was predominantly negative for p16 (18/20). There was a progressive increase of p16 expression with the grade of CIN. In CIN 1, two cases (20%) showed nuclear and nucleocytoplasmic positivity respectively. In contrast, diffuse strong nuclear or nucleocytoplasmic expression was observed in 45 and 55% cases of CIN 2 and CIN 3 respectively. All except one squamous cell carcinoma stained strongly positive for p16. The difference in expression between CIN 2/3 and SCC versus normal cervix was found highly significant (p is equal to 0.008 and p less than 0.001). Conclusions: p16 expression correlates excellently with the grade of CIN and is a sensitive marker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  5,795 617 7
Diarrheagenic E. coli in hospitalized patients: Special reference to Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli
Mrudul Lanjewar, Anuradha S De, M Mathur
January-March 2010, 53(1):75-78
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59188  PMID:20090227
Purpose: This study was conducted to study the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in dysentery cases with special reference to Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Methods : During a two-year period, 1066 stool samples were collected from hospitalized patients with diarrhea and dysentery. After taking detailed clinical history and observing the gross and microscopic findings of the stool samples, they were cultured on MacConkey and Sorbitol MacConkey agars and E.coli isolates were identified by standard biochemical tests. Results: Of the 100 E.coli strains isolated in pure culture and sent for sero typing to Central Research Institute (CRI), Kasauli, 43% were found to be DEC, giving an isolation rate of 4.03%. Results of sero typing showed 37.21% STEC which were more common in children. Abdominal pain and stool with mucus flakes were statistically significant parameters (p less than 0.01) in patients with dysentery due to E.coli strains. Though E.coli O157 was not encountered, it was seen that 25% of STEC did not ferment sorbitol. The DEC strains showed maximum in vitro sensitivity to amikacin (83.72%) and all strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. Antibiotics along with ORS and intravenous fluids had to be given in 68.42% patients. As complications, about 16.67% of children developed hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS),and 10.53% of patients developed acute renal failure. No mortality was reported. Conclusion: Though Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) O157:H7 was not encountered in this study, STEC caused by E.coli non O157 was reported. STEC is also known to cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and HUS. In this study HUS was reported in 16.67% children. Therefore, proper isolation and identification of STEC is essential in a tertiary care centre, to initiate prompt management and reduce morbidity and mortality in children.
  5,869 536 3
CASE REPORTS
Multiple intraductal papillomas of breast clinically masquerading as malignancy
Pallavi Singh, Vatsala Misra, Premala A Singh, Ravi Mehrotra
January-March 2010, 53(1):112-114
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59197  PMID:20090236
Background: Intraductal papilloma is characterized by proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells overlying fibro-vascular stalks creating an arborescent structure within the lumen of duct. Some times multiple papillomas with florid proliferation of epithelium may be confused with malignancy. A case of multiple intraductal papillomas of breast with ulceration of overlying skin and large lump leading to clinical diagnosis of malignancy is documented here. Case Report: A 45-year-old female presented with ulcerated mass of six months duration in the left breast. On examination, a firm, immobile lump of 8× 10 cm in size involving nipple with excoriation of surrounding skin and serosanguinous discharge from nipple was present. There was no axillary lymphadenopathy. No family history of carcinoma breast was present. Fine needle aspiration smears showed benign cellular changes with apocrine metaplasia. Biopsy from an area adjacent to nipple showed intraductal papilloma. Simple mastectomy showed lobulated dirty white mass with well circumscribed nodules below the nipple and areola. On histology with immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of multiple intraductal papillomas was made. Patient is on regular follow-up and doing well. Conclusion: The case highlights the problem in differentiating marked papillomatosis from a malignant lesion of breast and importance of biopsy with immunohistochemistry in such cases for proper management.
  6,207 168 3
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of thymus: A rare cause of Cushing's syndrome
Raman Arora, Ruchika Gupta, Alok Sharma, Amit K Dinda
January-March 2010, 53(1):148-151
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59210  PMID:20090249
Thymomas constitute majority of the thymic neoplasms. In contrast, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid and neuroendocrine carcinoma) of thymus are extremely rare. Thymic carcinoids may present rarely with Cushing's syndrome due to the ectopic production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Recognition of this association is imperative for appropriate management of patients. We describe three cases of rare atypical carcinoid tumor (neuroendocrine carcinoma) of the thymus. Case 1, of a 26-year-old man presenting with Cushing's syndrome, case 2 - a 23-year-old female with Cushingoid features, and Case 3 - a 39-year-old man complaining of progressively worsening dyspnea. Computed tomography (CT) scans of chest in all three patients revealed anterior mediastinal mass. Excision of tumors and histological examination of the three tumors showed a carcinoid tumor with nuclear pleomorphism, increased mitotic activity and focal necrosis. The features suggested a diagnosis of atypical carcinoid tumor in all the three cases. The tumor cells in Cases 1 and 2 showed focal immunohistochemical staining for ACTH. Atypical carcinoid (neuroendocrine carcinoma, well-differentiated and moderately-differentiated) of the thymus is a rare thymic tumor which carries a worse prognosis compared to thymoma and requires aggressive therapy. Hence, an accurate diagnosis is essential.
  5,974 245 4
Mixed odontogenic tumor: Ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor
Demet Etit, Mehmet Ali Uyaroglu, Nezahat Erdogan
January-March 2010, 53(1):122-124
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59201  PMID:20090240
Odontogenic tumors constitute a group of heterogeneous disease derived from epithelial, mesenchymal and/or ectomesenchymal elements. Ameloblastoma is the best known and the most frequent form of odontogenic tumors. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), known as Pindborg tumor, is locally invasive lesion which has a characteristic amiloid deposition. Here a case of a peripheral ameloblastoma associated with CEOT is presented with clinical and morphological features.
  5,699 486 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A histopathological study of liver and biliary remnants with clinical outcome in cases of extrahepatic biliary atresia
Paromita Roy, Uttara Chatterjee, M Ganguli, Sugato Banerjee, SK Chatterjee, AK Basu
January-March 2010, 53(1):101-105
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59194  PMID:20090233
Context: The indicators of poor prognosis in cases of extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) continue to remain controversial. Aims: To correlate the histopathological findings of wedge biopsy from liver and tissue obtained from the shaving at the porta hepatis, during hepatic portoenterostomy, with the clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: All cases of EHBA surgically treated in our hospital from 1995 to 2006 have been reviewed. Wedge biopsies of the liver and biopsies from the porta hepatis were analyzed with hemotoxylin-eosin stains and immunohistochemistry. The parameters correlated with clinical outcomes were - presence of large bile ducts ( > 150μm diameter) in the portal tissue plaque, degree of fibrosis (semi-quantitative; graded as mild, moderate and severe), presence of ductal plate malformation (DPM) and age at operation. Results: The proportions of patients with small or large ductal diameter who remained clinically controlled (serum bilirubin < 1.5mg/dl with no evidence of end stage liver failure) were 39% and 66.6% respectively (P=0.44). There was a highly significant correlation between the extent of fibrosis and clinical outcome. Mild, moderate and severe fibrosis resulted in clinical control rates of 78.5%, 34.4% and 24% respectively (P=0.001). Ductal plate malformation was seen in 15% of our cases and was uniformly associated with poor outcome. A non-significant trend towards poorer outcome was seen with increasing age at surgery. Conclusions: Histopathological correl ations with clinical outcome in EHBA have been rarely reported from the Indian subcontinent. A greater degree of fibrosis at the time of hepatic portoenterostomy and presence of ductal plate malformation is associated with a significantly poorer clinical outcome.
  5,578 329 13
CASE REPORTS
Invasive papillary carcinoma of male breast
Raman Arora, Ruchika Gupta, Alok Sharma, Amit Kumar Dinda
January-March 2010, 53(1):135-137
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59206  PMID:20090245
Breast carcinoma is uncommon in males and constitutes less than one per cent of all cancers in men. Invasive papillary carcinoma is a rare morphological type of breast cancer. Since papillary carcinoma has a favorable prognosis as compared to other histopathological subtypes, an accurate diagnosis is essential. We report two cases of this rare histological type of male breast cancer. A 62-year-old man presented with a lump in the central quadrant of right breast and underwent simple mastectomy. Histological examination showed features of invasive papillary carcinoma. The other case was of an 81-year-old male patient with a subareolar mass in the right breast. Wide local excision of the lump showed features of an intracystic invasive papillary carcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent simple mastectomy, however, no residual tumor was found in the resection specimen. Both the patients were free of disease at one year of follow-up. Invasive papillary carcinoma is an uncommon morphological type of breast cancer in males. The intracystic variant of papillary carcinoma is extremely unusual and may be missed on cytological examination. A thorough sampling is essential for an accurate diagnosis of invasion in these cases.
  5,114 247 2
Nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis with prostatic adenocarcinoma
Paari Murugan, Robert E Brown, Bihong Zhao
January-March 2010, 53(1):152-154
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59211  PMID:20090250
Granulomatous prostatitis is an infrequently seen entity in routine practice. One of its most common subtypes is nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis (NSGP), the etiology of which is still under debate. Such cases may be mistaken for adenocarcinoma clinically and radiologically. Histological resemblance to adenocarcinoma may arise when there is a xanthogranulomatous pattern or a prominence of epithelioid histiocytes. However, NSGP may rarely coexist with adenocarcinoma and it is critical to sample these cases thoroughly to exclude the presence of malignancy.
  4,996 169 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical audit of inherited bleeding disorders in a developing country
Raihan Sajid, Safoorah Khalid, Nazish Mazari, Waleed Bin Azhar, Mohammad Khurshid
January-March 2010, 53(1):50-53
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59183  PMID:20090222
Objective: We did a clinical audit to determine the status of coagulation disorders in a hemophilia care center in Pakistan. Setting: Fatimid foundation blood bank and hematological diseases center, Lahore. Study Design: This is a retrospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All patients registered at Lahore center were included. Data was collected using a questionnaire including age, gender, diagnosis, hepatitis and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) status, number of episodes of bleeding, most common site of bleeding, severity of disorder and number of transfusions required to treat the episode. Results: During the study period, a total of 923 registered patients were reviewed at Lahore center and of these, 408 patients (44.2%) were on regular follow-up. Inherited bleeding disorders identified in these patients included hemophilia A, hemophilia B, vWD, factor VII deficiency, factor V deficiency, factor X deficiency, dysfibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia, factor XIII deficiency; and platelet function defects. Median age was 17 years with a range of three to 57 years. Median age at diagnosis was one year. There were 329 (80.6%) males and 79 (19.3%) females. The products used in these patients included factor VIII concentrate, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, cryosupernatant and platelets. Testing for transmission of viral infections was also done in these patients and one patient (0.2%) was found hepatitis B positive, six patients (1.4%) were hepatitis C positive and two patients (0.49%) were HIV positive. Conclusion: Hemophilia A, hemophilia B and vWD are the commonly encountered inherited bleeding disorders in our patients followed by other recessively transmitted disorders with a median age of 17 years and male to female ratio of 4: 1. Most of the patients utilized services available at Fatimid foundation with good clinical results. In Pakistan, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are trying their best for providing optimal treatment to patients with inherited bleeding disorders. There is a need for government participation to improve the availability of current hemophilia care services.
  4,502 345 10
CASE REPORTS
Ocular dirofilariasis
Reema Nath, Rajen Gogoi, Narayan Bordoloi, Tapan Gogoi
January-March 2010, 53(1):157-159
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59213  PMID:20090252
Dirofilaria is a parasite of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally. It is being reported in increasing numbers from Mediterranean countries like Italy. In India this infection is occasionally being reported. We report three cases of ocular dirofilariasis from the state of Assam presenting as periorbital and subconjunctival cysts. The parasites were identified as Dirofilaria repens. The purpose of this article is to take note of this emerging zoonosis in Assam; also to review literature in the cases reported.
  4,403 298 20
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
CagA status and VacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to histopathologic findings in Iranian population
Mahsa Molaei, Forough Foroughi, Reza Mashayekhi, Mehrdad Haghazali, Homayoon Zojaji, Fereshteh Jafari, Hossein Dabiri, Mohammad Reza Zali
January-March 2010, 53(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59178  PMID:20090217
Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to detect dominant cagA/vacA genotypes of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) and determine correlations between different cagA/vacA genotypes and histologic features of chronic gastritis in Iranian patients. Methods: Gastric biopsy was taken from 166 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. The specimens were processed and DNA from each H. pylori isolate was extracted from multiple colony sweeps for identification of glmM gene. The vacA subtypes and cagA gene were tested by PCR . Histopathological features were recorded and graded according to partial Sydney system. Results: Of the 86 strains, 66 (76.7%) were cagA positive. The proportions of vacA gene subtypes s1, s2, m1 and m2 in the 78 strains isolated were 70.5%, 29.5%, 37.2% and 62.8%, respectively. About 83.3% of the vacA-positive strains had s1 allele. Twenty-six strains (33.3%) were positive for both cagA and m1 allele. Positive cagA status and vacA subtypes were not associated significantly with presence of neutrophil infiltration, intestinal metaplasia or H. pylori density. Only vacA s1 was significantly associated with more severe inflammation (P=0.02). The dominant genotype of H. pylori was vacA plus s1/m2. CagA gene positivity rate was not closely associated with severity of the disease. Conclusion: H. pylori strains showing vacA s1 genotype were associated with more severe gastritis. These findings show that vacA genotyping may have clinical relevance in Iran.
  4,414 270 11
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Perinodular hydropic degeneration in leiomyoma: An alarming histology
Kusum D Jashnani, Sangeeta Kini, Gaurav Dhamija
January-March 2010, 53(1):173-175
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59223  PMID:20090262
  4,387 124 1
CASE REPORTS
Serous microcystic adenoma (glycogen rich cystadenoma) of the pancreas
Sunitha Jacob, Premeeta Rawat, Ruth Prasanna Mark
January-March 2010, 53(1):106-108
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59195  PMID:20090234
Serous microcystic adenoma (SMCA) is a rare pancreatic tumor with a striking predilection for elderly females and a rather unique morphology. Classically, the tumor is riddled with innumerable small cysts around a stellate scar. The quintessential histological features are closely placed small cysts lined by glycogen rich cuboidal epithelium. In view of its excellent prognostic outcome, this tumor needs to be accurately diagnosed. This report documents a case of SMCA occurring in a 60-year-old female.
  4,289 170 3
Rare association of papillary carcinoma of thyroid with adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia
Urmila N Khadilkar, Alka Mary Mathai, M Chakrapani, Krishna Prasad
January-March 2010, 53(1):125-127
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59202  PMID:20090241
Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid, especially in countries with adequate or excess iodine in diet. Many studies indicate that a sizable number of papillary cancer cases occur in a setting of chronic thyroiditis. But the tumor that arises more frequently in thyroiditis is malignant lymphoma. We report a rare association of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in an elderly lady with adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid, neck nodes and evaluation of the bone marrow and peripheral blood helped in the diagnosis of papillary cancer coexisting with adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia.
  3,977 152 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Pure primary non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma: A diagnostic dilemma
Sonia Gon, Bipasa Majumdar, Gopinath Barui, Rupam Karmakar, Aparna Bhattacharya
January-March 2010, 53(1):178-180
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59226  PMID:20090265
  3,943 183 6
CASE REPORTS
Herpetic geometric glossitis: Acyclovir resistant case in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia
Claudio Maranhao Pereira, Carmino Antonio Souza, Maria Elvira P Correa
January-March 2010, 53(1):133-134
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59205  PMID:20090244
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in an immunocompromised host may be atypical in location and morphology. Lesions are more extensive and aggressive, slow healing or nonhealing and extremely painful. Intraoral lesions are ulcerative and may involve any intraoral, oropharyngeal, or esophageal site. Herpetic geometric glossitis is a recently described form of lingual HSV infection in an immunocompromised patient. It was described as ulcer on the dorsum of the tongue sensitive for acyclovir therapy. A patient is presented with acute myelogenous leukemia that developed herpetic geometric glossitis which was acyclovir resistant.
  3,957 139 4
IMAGES
Foregut duplication cysts of stomach masquerading as leiomyoma
Kavita Mardi, Vijay Kaushal, Saurabh Gupta
January-March 2010, 53(1):160-161
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59214  PMID:20090253
  3,777 129 8
CASE REPORTS
Intra articular synovial sarcoma
Radha Sistla, Afroz Tameem, JVS Vidyasagar
January-March 2010, 53(1):115-116
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59198  PMID:20090237
Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue neoplasm with a characteristic biphasic pattern. Incidence in soft tissues is 5-10%. Intra articularly synovial sarcoma is extremely rare. Fewer than 5% of all synovial sarcomas arise within the joint space. We report a case of intra articular synovial sarcoma in a young male who presented as internal derangement of the knee.
  3,692 187 3
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Biotype and antibiotic resistance pattern of group A streptococci
Yukthi Sharma, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Indira Bairy
January-March 2010, 53(1):187-188
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59233  PMID:20090272
  3,543 224 -
CASE REPORTS
Extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in breast: A rare presentation
J Thanka, K Krishnarathinam, S Rajendiran
January-March 2010, 53(1):155-156
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59212  PMID:20090251
Unusual sites of relapses following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rarely reported. Our report describes a thirty-two-year old female, who developed extramedullary (EM) breast relapse after allogenic HSCT for pre B cell Philadelphia chromosome negative ALL. She had no evidence of leukemia in her marrow demonstrating 100% full donor chimerism, while she had ALL relapse in her breast.
  3,579 162 6
Cytomorphology of adult granulosa cell tumor in ascitic fluid
Kalpana Azad, Jitender M Khunger
January-March 2010, 53(1):119-121
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59200  PMID:20090239
Adult granulosa cell tumors (AGCT) are associated with ascites in 10% of the cases. Although these tumors form two per cent of all ovarian tumors, they may create a diagnostic challenge in cytologic preparations. The tumor cells are not readily shed in the fluid. A case of a 47-year-old woman with presence of granulosa tumor cells in ascitic fluid is presented. Because of its rarity, AGCTs can be confused with other ovarian tumors.
  3,547 187 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 and micro vessel density: Grade II vs. Grade III astrocytoma
Priya Malhan, Nuzhat Husain, Shalini Bhalla, Rakesh K Gupta, Mazhar Husain
January-March 2010, 53(1):20-23
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59177  PMID:20090216
Histological classification and grading are prime procedures in the management of patients with astrocytoma, providing vital data for therapeutic decision making and prognostication. However, it has limitations in assessing biological tumor behavior. This can be overcome by using newer immunohistochemical techniques. This study was carried out to compare proliferative indices using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), extent of p53 expression and micro vessel morphometric parameters in patients with low grade and anaplastic astrocytoma. Twenty-five patients, each of grade II and grade III astrocytoma were evaluated using monoclonal antibodies to PCNA, p53 protein and factor VIII related antigen. PCNA, p53-labeling indices were calculated along with micro vessel morphometric analysis using Biovis Image plus Software. Patients with grade III astrocytoma had higher PCNA and p53 labeling indices as compared with grade II astrocytoma (29.14 plus/minus 9.87% vs. 16.84 plus/minus 6.57%, p 0.001; 18.18 plus/minus 6.14% vs. 6.14 plus/minus 7.23%, p 0.001, respectively). Micro vessel percentage area of patients with grade III astrocytoma was also (4.26 plus/minus 3.70 vs. 1.05 plus/minus 0.56, p 0.001), higher along with other micro vessel morphometric parameters. Discordance between histology and one or more IHC parameters was seen in 5/25 (20%) of patients with grade III astrocytoma and 9/25 (36%) of patients with grade II disease. PCNA and p53 labeling indices were positively correlated with Pearson's correlation, p less than 0.001 for both). Increased proliferative fraction, genetic alterations and neovascularization mark biological aggressiveness in astrocytoma. Immunohistochemical evaluation scores over meet the challenge of accurate prognostication of this potentially fatal malignancy.
  3,409 236 6
Significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in epithelial ovarian cancer
Julian A Crasta, TS Premlatha, Suniti M Krishnan, Elizabeth Vallikad, Karuna Rameshkumar
January-March 2010, 53(1):54-56
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59184  PMID:20090223
Background: Reactive thrombocytosis is reported in a variety of solid tumors. A few studies have documented preoperative thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer and identified it as a marker of aggressive tumor biology. Aim: To study the incidence of preoperative thrombocytosis (platelets greater than 400x10) in epithelial ovarian cancer and its association with other clinicopathologic factors. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five patients with invasive ovarian epithelial cancer were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed for the association preoperative thrombocytosis with other clinical and histopathological prognostic factors. Means were analyzed by Student's t test; proportions were determined by Chi-square analysis. Results: Twenty of 65 (37.5%) patients had thrombocytosis at primary diagnosis. Patients with preoperative thrombocytosis were found to have lower hemoglobin (P < 0.0002), more advanced stage disease (P < 0.05) and higher grade tumors (P < 0.02). Patients with thrombocytosis had greater likelihood of subpotimal cytoreduction. Conclusions: Preoperative thrombocytosis is a frequent finding in ovarian carcinomas and their association with advanced stage disease and higher grade denotes that platelets play a role in the tumor growth and progression.
  3,392 245 7
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Bartholin gland carcinoma
Geetika Khanna, Rajni , Kalpana Azad
January-March 2010, 53(1):171-172
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59221  PMID:20090260
  3,496 128 -
CASE REPORTS
Malignant hemangiopericytoma of pituitary fossa
Prasenjit Das, Kunhi P Haresh, Vaishali Suri, Mehar Chand Sharma, Bhawani Shankar Sharma, Chitra Sarkar
January-March 2010, 53(1):109-111
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59196  PMID:20090235
Intracranial hemangiopericytomas are rare tumors with aggressive behavior. Other than the meninges, this lesion has rarely been reported in periventricular and sellar region. We report a case of malignant hemangiopericytoma in sellar region in a 47-year-old male who presented with history of sudden onset of bilateral visual disturbances. To best of our knowledge, this is the second case report of malignant hemangiopericytoma in this location. As this intracranial lesion shows aggressive behavior, in the form of recurrence or extracranial metastasis in comparison to its extracranial counterparts, diagnosis should be made cautiously.
  3,413 207 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Lupus anticoagulant in human immunodeficiency virus -infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy
Omolade A Awodu, Edeghonghon E Olayemi, Godwin N Bazuaye, Abel N Onunu
January-March 2010, 53(1):47-49
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59182  PMID:20090221
Background: Lupus anticoagulant (LA) is a heterogeneous group of antibodies that causes a variety of clinical and laboratory effects; has been described in infections such as human immunodeficiency virus. LA has not been previously described in Nigerians with human immunodeficiency virus infection on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Aim: To determine the frequency of LA in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus on HAART. Methods: Cross sectional study of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection undergoing HAART at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Screening for LA was done using the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and kaolin clotting time (KCT). Mixing experiments were conducted on samples with prolonged clotting time. KCT ratio was calculated. A positive result was taken as KCT ratio greater than or equal to 1.2. Fisher's exact test was used to test the association between LA and sex. Association between aPTT and KCT was tested according to Pearson. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Fifty-eight patients aged 18- 60 years were studied, comprising of 28 males (mean age 40.50 plus/minus 8.8 years) and 30 females (mean age 35.4 plus/minus 9.02). Frequency of LA among human immunodeficiency infected patients was 5.2%, (frequency in males and females were 3.6 and 6.7 % respectively). This was lower than 46% reported in patients not on HAART. There was no statistically significant difference in LA prevalence between males and females P greater than0.05. A positive correlation was observed between the clotting tests aPTT and KCT (r is equal to 0.9406, p less than 0.0001). Conclusion: HAART may prevent development of LA in HIV-infected patients.
  3,361 136 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
HBV, HCV co-infection among blood donors in Nigeria
OO Opaleye, TO Zakariyahu, BA Tijani, AS Bakarey
January-March 2010, 53(1):182-183
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59229  PMID:20090268
  3,269 206 12
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Lymphatic channel density in colorectal adenocarcinoma
Venkatesh R Naik, Hasnan Jaafar, Ch'ng Ewe Seng
January-March 2010, 53(1):12-14
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59175  PMID:20090214
Aims : The purpose of this study was to count the number of lymphatic channels present in colorectal adenocarcinoma and correlate it with site, size, and stage of tumor, lymph node metastasis. Material and Methods: A total of 29 cases of colorectal carcinomas were retrieved from the archives of the pathology department, School of Medical Sciences. One paraffin block containing tumor was selected from each case. Sections of three to five micron thickness were cut from this paraffin block and stained using the monoclonal antibody D2-40[DAKO] specifically to stain lymphatic channel endothelium in normal and neoplastic tissue. The highest number of lymphatic channels in an area of 0.196mm 2 [high power field] was counted in each tumor using NIKON microscope. These findings were correlated with the clinical parameters and also with lymph node metastasis. Statistical software used: SPSS version 11. Results : The highest density of lymphatic channels in colorectal carcinoma was counted after identifying the appropriate "hot spot". The lymphatic channel density was in the range of 15 - 50/ 0.196 mm 2 [high power field]. There was poor association of this lymphatic channel density with site, size, and stage of tumor and also with lymph node metastasis. This result is in concordance with results of studies done elsewhere. Conclusion : In this study no significant association was seen between lymphatic channel density and site, size, stage and lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma. This indicates that lymphatic channel proliferation does not influence tumor aggressiveness. Further studies are needed to validate our findings.
  3,138 226 2
CASE REPORTS
Florid xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis masquerading as invasive gallbladder cancer leading to extensive surgical resection
Archana Rastogi, Deepak Kumar Singh, Puja Sakhuja, Ranjana Gondal
January-March 2010, 53(1):144-147
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59209  PMID:20090248
Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of gallbladder wall can extend and infiltrate adjacent organs which can be mistaken for malignancy on preoperative investigations and, intraoperatively, often leads to extensive surgical resections. Only the histopathologic examination of the specimen allows correct diagnosis. We hereby review clinicopathologic findings of six cases which underwent extensive surgeries on clinical, radiological and intraoperative suspicion of gallbladder carcinoma which turned out to be xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC). There was no evidence of malignancy on histopathologic examination. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation extended into liver, duodenum, colon and stomach in case 1; liver and colon in case 2; liver, duodenum, colon in case 3; stomach, duodenum, colon in case 4; stomach and duodenum in case 5 and duodenum and colon in case 6. Lymph nodes in all the six cases showed reactive hyperplasia. We present here the clinico-radiologic findings of these cases, techniques which may help differentiate between an XGC and a gallbladder carcinoma and also discuss the management of these cases.
  3,061 215 7
IMAGES
Pelvic actinomycosis mimicking: An advanced ovarian cancer
Narender Kumar, Prasenjit Das, Dinesh Kumar, Alka Kriplani, Ruma Ray
January-March 2010, 53(1):164-165
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59216  PMID:20090255
  3,041 146 5
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
Amita Krishnappa, Jeyachandran Padmini
January-March 2010, 53(1):168-170
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59219  PMID:20090258
  2,907 148 3
CASE REPORTS
Intussusception due to intestinal metastasis from lung cancer
Sangeeta Kini, Ridhi M Kapadia, Anjali Amarapurkar
January-March 2010, 53(1):141-143
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59208  PMID:20090247
Intestinal metastasis from lung primary is very uncommon and seen at the terminal stage of the disease. Clinically, patients present as perforation or bleeding and rarely as intussusception. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who came with sudden onset of abdominal complaints of four to five days duration. A computerized tomography (CT) - scan abdomen showed mural thickening of short loop of jejunum with ileoileal intussusception. Resection-anastomosis revealed two separate nodules in the small intestine. The patient, a diagnosed case of primary carcinoma of lung seven months ago, had been treated with one cycle of chemotherapy. Histopathology of the small intestinal nodules showed features of adenocarcinoma consistent with the known primary lung cancer. We present this case to arouse a clinical suspicion of intestinal metastasis in known cases of primary lung cancer presenting with the sudden onset of abdominal complaints. Early diagnosis and management improves the survival of these patients.
  2,908 118 7
Fetus-in-fetu presenting as acute intestinal obstruction
Sunita Singh, Kamal Rattan, Navtej , Meenu Gil, SK Mathur, Rajeev Sen
January-March 2010, 53(1):128-129
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59203  PMID:20090242
Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition in which a fetiform calcified mass is often present in the abdomen of its host; a newborn or infant. We present the case of a three-month-old male baby with acute intestinal obstruction and abdominal mass. X-ray abdomen and ultrasonogram revealed a cystic mass with calcification. On laparotomy, a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass causing high intestinal obstruction was identified. Total excision of the mass was done. Diagnosis of fetus-in-fetu was confirmed on histopathology. Postoperative recovery was uneventful.
  2,834 125 3
Malignant melanoma with osteocartilaginous differentiation
Shirley Sundersingh, Urmila Majhi, Kanchan Murhekar, Radha Krishnamurthy
January-March 2010, 53(1):130-132
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59204  PMID:20090243
We report a case of acral lentiginous melanoma on the plantar aspect of foot in a 50-year-old male that exhibited a prominent osteo-cartilaginous differentiation in the metastatic inguinal lymph node. The ability of melanomas to undergo multidirectional differentiation leads to a variety of histological appearances that can be misleading. Although the true nature of the tumor is most often recognized at the primary cutaneous site, metastatic tumors may closely mimic other malignant mesenchymal or neuro-ectodermal tumors. Hence awareness of this unusual phenomenon occurring in malignant melanoma is essential to avoid misdiagnosis.
  2,827 110 3
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Extra nodal follicular dendritic cell tumor
S Suchitha, CS Sheeladevi, R Sunila, GV Manjunath
January-March 2010, 53(1):175-177
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59224  PMID:20090263
  2,801 136 5
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of vulva
Rekha B Puranik, Sujatha Naik, Shridhar Kulkarni, MH Kulkarni
January-March 2010, 53(1):167-168
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59218  PMID:20090257
  2,786 138 1
Xanthogranulomatous oophoritis associated with primary infertility and endometriosis
Shailaja Shukla, Mukta Pujani, Sanjeet Kumar Singh, Meenu Pujani
January-March 2010, 53(1):197-198
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59240  PMID:20090279
  2,769 150 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Is moderation of protease production an adaptation of well-defined anthropization in dermatophytes?
S Gokulshankar, AJA Ranjitsingh, G Venkatesan, MS Ranjith, GS Vijayalakshmi, M Prabhamanju, S Subashini
January-March 2010, 53(1):87-92
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59191  PMID:20090230
The protease activity of different isolates of dermatophytes representing different ecological groups namely geophilic, zoopahilic and anthropophilic, in their vegetative and sporulation growth phases were compared. Unlike their geophilic and zoophilic counterparts, all the isolates of anthropophilic dermatophytes viz. Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. violaceum and Epidermophyton floccosum recorded reduced protease activity during artificially induced sporulation phase in comparison to their vegetative growth phase. Even among the anthropophilic group, a classical moderation of protease activity was recorded in Trichyphyton rubrum which also correlates to its clinical manifestation. This enzyme moderation could also be an evolutionary adaptation of the anthropization of these species
  2,687 209 1
IMAGES
Perforating lichen nitidus
B Vijaya, Sunila , GV Manjunath
January-March 2010, 53(1):162-163
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59215  PMID:20090254
  2,713 140 6
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamases in Serratia and Citrobacter species in North India
Meher Rizvi, Nazish Fatima, Indu Shukla, Abida Malik
January-March 2010, 53(1):193-194
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59237  PMID:20090276
  2,616 206 3
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: A rare primary malignant tumor of the breast
Hanni Gulwani, Sunita Bhalla
January-March 2010, 53(1):200-202
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59242  PMID:20090281
  2,580 128 3
Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of left parotid gland
Ibrahim Gelincik, Irfan Bayram, Hakan Cankaya
January-March 2010, 53(1):166-167
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59217  PMID:20090256
  2,492 193 -
CASE REPORTS
Meningeal chondroma in a young female
Niraj Kumari, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Narendra Krishnani
January-March 2010, 53(1):117-118
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59199  PMID:20090238
Meningeal chondroma is a rare intracranial neoplasm. It is usually diagnosed clinically as meningioma. Histologically it may have a differential diagnosis of chordoid meningioma, a malignant lesion, and needs radiotherapy. A chondroma is a benign lesion where surgical removal is the treatment. A 20-year-old female presented with symptoms of space occupying lesion which was clinically and radiologically considered meningioma. On histopathology, the lesion turned out to be a chondroma. Meningeal chondroma is a benign lesion for which surgical removal is the curative treatment. No further treatment in the form of radiation is required.
  2,543 128 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Schwannoma of the ascending colon
Vijaya V Mysorekar, Saraswathi G Rao, Umesh Jalihal, M Sridhar
January-March 2010, 53(1):198-200
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59241  PMID:20090280
  2,538 115 6
Cystic variant of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas presenting as pseudo-pancreatic cyst
Madhusmita Jena, Shameem Shariff, Padmini Jeyachandran
January-March 2010, 53(1):190-192
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59235  PMID:20090274
  2,533 114 2
Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the prostate presenting as urinary retention
Jyoti Ramnath Kini, Hema Kini, Muktha Ramesh Pai, Ramadas Naik
January-March 2010, 53(1):194-195
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59238  PMID:20090277
  2,521 116 -
Neuroendocrine tumor in horseshoe kidney
Ajay Anand, Amlesh Seth, MK Singh, Chaitali Gupta
January-March 2010, 53(1):195-197
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59239  PMID:20090278
  2,395 102 1
Invasive fungal sinusitis resulting in orbital apex syndrome in a HIV positive patient
VP Baradkar, M Mathur, S Kumar
January-March 2010, 53(1):185-187
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59232  PMID:20090271
  2,356 131 1
Amoebic meningo-encephalitis
Duraiswami Ramanan, Reddy Nalaganta, KS Yadav Ram, Ravishankar Ramani
January-March 2010, 53(1):183-184
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59230  PMID:20090269
  2,341 145 3
HIV infection in low risk areas: Cases from outskirts of Chennai city
Moohideen Koya, Susan Verghese
January-March 2010, 53(1):184-185
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59231  PMID:20090270
  2,382 98 -
Lipofibromatous hamartoma of median nerve
CS Sheela Devi, S Suchitha, R Sunila, GV Manjunath
January-March 2010, 53(1):177-178
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59225  PMID:20090264
  2,102 92 3
Unilateral absence of uterine adnexa
Radha R Pai, Alfred Augustine, Radhakrishna S Nayak, Veena Devadiga
January-March 2010, 53(1):180-181
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59227  PMID:20090266
  2,091 79 -
Bilateral primary B-cell lymphoma of testis in a three-year-old male child
Malti Kumari, Nuzhat Husain, Suresh Babu, SN Kureel
January-March 2010, 53(1):181-182
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59228  PMID:20090267
  2,056 103 -
Retroperitoneal ectomesenchymoma: A rare childhood tumor
Sheenu Misra, Nuzhat Husain
January-March 2010, 53(1):192-193
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59236  PMID:20090275
  2,071 83 -
Cutaneous leishmaniasis in a soldier
Bushra Moiz, M Asim Beg, Natasha Ali
January-March 2010, 53(1):172-173
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59222  PMID:20090261
  1,992 118 -
Simple and inexpensive technical methods in laboratories
Fatemeh Mahjoub, Zahra Omidi, Parisa Khalili, Saghar Sami
January-March 2010, 53(1):188-190
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59234  PMID:20090273
  1,606 106 -
Epithelioid sarcoma with angiomatous pattern: A diagnostic dilemma
Madhu Chaturvedi, Manisha S Khare
January-March 2010, 53(1):170-171
DOI:10.4103/0377-4929.59220  PMID:20090259
  1,520 85 1
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