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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1 :Spectrum of pathological changes in aging human brain . (a) Brain with thickened leptomeninges in the left side. On the right, the arachnoid is stripped off to show sulcal widening and atrophy of frontal and parietal lobes (70-year-old male); (b) coronal slice of brain highlighting frontal and temporal atrophy, mild dilation of ventricle and atherosclerosis of the middle cerebral artery (70-year-old male); (c) Bielschowski's silver stain showing diffuse granular and mature SP with central core of amyloid in the frontal cortex (72-year-old male with early cognitive deficits, silver stain ×80); (d) flame shaped neurofibrillary tangle in a pyramidal neuron (note a large nucleus in the cell reflecting viability of the neuron yet; Bodian silver stain ×240); (e) pyramidal neurons, viewed under crossed polarized light following congo red staining, show greenish birefringence, indicating beta pleated fibrillar nature of cytoskeletal proteins in the neurofibrillary tangles (congo red ×200); (f) tau immunolabeling of the neurofibrillary tangles in the neurons (tau ×200); (g) Bodian silver staining of a mature SP; the central amyloid core (arrow) and bulbous threads of neurites are argentophilic; Bodian silver ×320; (h) the mature senile plaque with central core and the Carona around (arrow) and another small plaque immunolabeled by antibody to Aß (ß amyloid ×240); (i) tau antibody immunolabeling: the neuropil threads with bulbous ends in a senile plaque (tau ×300); (j) glial fibers and reactive astrocytes participating in the formation of SP encircling the central pale core of amyloid (arrow) (GFAP ×320); (k) glial fibers around a small, thickened and hyaline arteriole in the cerebral cortex containing amyloid deposit (arrow) (GFAP ×200); (l) congophilic amyloid angiopathy viewed under crossed polarized light showing the characteristic birefringence (congo red ×300); (m) subpial concentrically calcified corpora amylacea representing degenerated astrocytes (H and E ×240); (n) subpial corpora amylacea immunolabeled with ubiquitin antibody (ubiquitin ×120); (o) Lewy body in a melanized neuron in substantia nigra in a 68-year-old lady with Parkinson's disease (H and E ×320)

Figure 1 :Spectrum of pathological changes in aging human brain . (a) Brain with thickened leptomeninges in the left side. On the right, the arachnoid is stripped off to show sulcal widening and atrophy of frontal and parietal lobes (70-year-old male); (b) coronal slice of brain highlighting frontal and temporal atrophy, mild dilation of ventricle and atherosclerosis of the middle cerebral artery (70-year-old male); (c) Bielschowski's silver stain showing diffuse granular and mature SP with central core of amyloid in the frontal cortex (72-year-old male with early cognitive deficits, silver stain ×80); (d) flame shaped neurofibrillary tangle in a pyramidal neuron (note a large nucleus in the cell reflecting viability of the neuron yet; Bodian silver stain ×240); (e) pyramidal neurons, viewed under crossed polarized light following congo red staining, show greenish birefringence, indicating beta pleated fibrillar nature of cytoskeletal proteins in the neurofibrillary tangles (congo red ×200); (f) tau immunolabeling of the neurofibrillary tangles in the neurons (tau ×200); (g) Bodian silver staining of a mature SP; the central amyloid core (arrow) and bulbous threads of neurites are argentophilic; Bodian silver ×320; (h) the mature senile plaque with central core and the Carona around (arrow) and another small plaque immunolabeled by antibody to Aß (ß amyloid ×240); (i) tau antibody immunolabeling: the neuropil threads with bulbous ends in a senile plaque (tau ×300); (j) glial fibers and reactive astrocytes participating in the formation of SP encircling the central pale core of amyloid (arrow) (GFAP ×320); (k) glial fibers around a small, thickened and hyaline arteriole in the cerebral cortex containing amyloid deposit (arrow) (GFAP ×200); (l) congophilic amyloid angiopathy viewed under crossed polarized light showing the characteristic birefringence (congo red ×300); (m) subpial concentrically calcified corpora amylacea representing degenerated astrocytes (H and E ×240); (n) subpial corpora amylacea immunolabeled with ubiquitin antibody (ubiquitin ×120); (o) Lewy body in a melanized neuron in substantia nigra in a 68-year-old lady with Parkinson's disease (H and E ×320)