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Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 38-41

PNH revisited: Clinical profile, laboratory diagnosis and follow-up


Department of Transfusion Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Department of Clinical Hematology, Command Hospital (SC), Pune 40, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
P K Gupta
Department of Transfusion Medicine, Hematology Section, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune 411 040, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.44960

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Background: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, nocturnal hemoglobinuria and thrombophila. This acquired disease caused by a deficiency of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins on the hematopoietic cells is uncommon in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed with PNH in the past 1 year were collected. Clinical data (age, gender, various presenting symptoms), treatment information and follow-up data were collected from medical records. Results of relevant diagnostic tests were documented i.e., urine analysis, Ham's test, sucrose lysis test and sephacryl gel card test (GCT) for CD55 and CD59. Results: A total of 5 patients were diagnosed with PNH in the past 1 year. Presenting symptoms were hemolytic anemia (n=4) and bone marrow failure (n=1). A GCT detected CD59 deficiency in all erythrocytes in 4 patients and CD55 deficiency in 2 patients. A weak positive PNH test for CD59 was seen in 1 patient and a weak positive PNH test for CD55 was seen in 3 patients. All patients were negative by sucrose lysis test. Ham's test was positive in two cases. Patients were treated with prednisolone and/or androgen and 1 patient with aplastic anemia was also given antithymocyte globulin. A total of 4 patients responded with a partial recovery of hematopoiesis and 1 patient showed no recovery. None of the patients received a bone marrow transplant. Conclusion: The study highlights the diagnostic methods and treatment protocols undertaken to evaluate the PNH clone in a developing country where advanced methods like flowcytometry immunophenotyping (FCMI) and bone marrow transplants are not routinely available.


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