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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 642-643
Tularemia: A rare cause of cervical lymphadenopathy


1 Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey
2 Department of Microbiology, Kocaeli University, Faculty of Medicine, Izmit, Turkey

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Date of Web Publication20-Sep-2011
 

How to cite this article:
Karabay O, Karadenizli A, Durmaz Y, Ozturk G. Tularemia: A rare cause of cervical lymphadenopathy. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2011;54:642-3

How to cite this URL:
Karabay O, Karadenizli A, Durmaz Y, Ozturk G. Tularemia: A rare cause of cervical lymphadenopathy. Indian J Pathol Microbiol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2020 Nov 23];54:642-3. Available from: https://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2011/54/3/642/85130


Tularemia is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is a gram-negative, aerobic, immobile, intracellular bacterium. F. tularensis is survive in macrophages for a long time. [1] It is a zoonotic bacterial disease of the northern hemisphere. It is extremely virulent for humans and simply spreads by aerosol or water and it can cause outbreaks. [2]

A 59-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of high fever, neck swelling, and throat pain. Physical examination revealed fever (38.6°C temperature) and painful 4 cm4 cm sized lymphadenopathy in the right sub-mandibular area [Figure 1]a and b. Despite the sulbactam-ampicillin treatment there was no improvement in the patient's complaints.
Figure 1: (a) Appearance of cervical painful lymphadenopathy (b) Appeareance of aspiration material from lympadenopathy due to tularemia

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The patient lived in a rural area and he used to hunt. History of mouse infestation of his dwelling was present. The patient's serum was positive for tularemia at 1/640 titer by microagglutination test. F. tularensis real time Taqman polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was found positive from the aspirated sample [Figure 2]. Treatment with gentamicin was started and he responded to the treatment.
Figure 2: Quantification of F. tularensis DNA isolated from Aspirate by RT PCR

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Clinical manifestations of tularemia may range from an asymptomatic illness to septic shock and death. F. tularensis can be transmitted through the respiratory system, direct contact with animals, skin abrasions, scratches and contaminated drinking water. [3] Contamination is usually during the winter months. F. tularensis is resistant to macrolides, co-trimoxazole, and beta-lactam antibiotics (i.e., penicillin, cephalosporins). Tularemia should be considered, If the patients with cervical lymphadenitis do not improve despite the use of these antibiotics In these cases, aminoglycosides, tetracycline or quinolones should be used. Tularemia has a mortality rate of less than 1%, and leaves a lifelong immunity. [4]


   Acknowledgment Top


Department of Clinical Microbiology at the Faculty of Medicine in Uluda University is gratefully acknowledged.

 
   References Top

1.Tarnvik A, Berglund L. Tularaemia. Eur Respir J 2003;21:361-73.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Greub G, Raoult D. Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004;17:413-33.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Karabay O, Yilmaz F, Gurcan S, Goksugur N. Tularaemic cervical lymphadenopathy NZMed J 2007;120:2403.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Dennis DT, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, et al. Tularemia as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. JAMA 2001;285:2763-73.  Back to cited text no. 4
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Correspondence Address:
Oguz Karabay
Sakarya University, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, 54000, Sakarya
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.85130

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