Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 39-44

Immunohistochemical evaluation of lymphovascular invasion in carcinoma breast with CD34 and D2-40 and its correlation with other prognostic markers

Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Permeet Kaur Bagga
Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_791_16

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Background: Carcinoma breast is ever-evolving and becoming increasingly prevalent in India. Numerous prognostic factors based on morphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been established which need to be interconnected to give patients best possible treatment. Aims: This study aims to confirm and analyze lymphovascular invasion (LVI) detected by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) using IHC with CD34 and D2-40 and its correlation with other biologic and morphologic prognostic markers. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Fifty mastectomy specimens diagnosed as infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast on histopathology selected for the study. Evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections was done using H and E and IHC for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2/neu receptors, CD34, and D2-40 endothelial markers. Correlation of LVI done with prognostic markers of Carcinoma Breast, namely, age of the patient, tumor size, Nottingham grade, lymph node ratio (LNR), Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), ER/PR status, and HER2/neu status. CD34 and D2-40 utilized to distinguish blood vessel, lymph vessel, and retraction artifacts and to calculate lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) and blood microvessel density (BMVD). Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Software Package. Results: LVI was associated with younger age (P = 0.001), greater tumor size (P = 0.007), higher Nottingham grade (P = 0.001), higher LNR (P = 0.001), higher NPI (P = 0.001), Negative ER Status (P = 0.001), Negative PR Status (P = 0.002), Positive HER2/neu status (P = 0.021), Higher Intratumoral BMVD (P = 0.016), Peritumoral BMVD (P = 0.001), and Intratumoral LMVD (P = 0.009). Blood vessels more commonly invaded than lymph vessels. Retraction artifacts can be mistaken for LVI without IHC. Conclusions: D2-40 is a promising marker for lymphatic endothelium. LVI is a poor prognostic marker hence should be evaluated imperatively in all cases of carcinoma breast.

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