Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 209-213

Molecular genetics of BCR-ABL1 negative myeloproliferative neoplasms in India

Tata Memorial Centre, Hematopathology Laboratory, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Nikhil Rabade
Tata Memorial Centre, Hematopathology Laboratory, Ground Floor, CCE Building, ACTREC, Mumbai - 410 210, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_223_17

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Introduction: Over the past decade, we have moved on from a predominantly morphological and clinical classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) to a more evolved classification that accounts for the molecular heterogeneity that is unique to this subgroup of hematological malignancies. This usually incorporates mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), MPL, and calreticulin (CALR) genes. In this manuscript, we report the frequency of these mutations in a cohort of Indian patients at a tertiary cancer center. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty cases of MPN were included in this study. These cases were diagnosed and classified based on the World Health Organization 2008 criteria. JAK2 and MPL mutations were detected using high sensitivity allele-specific polymerase chain reaction using fluorescent labeled primers followed by capillary electrophoresis. A subset of JAK2 and CALR mutations were assessed using a fragment length assay. Results: Among the MPN, we had 20 cases of polycythemia vera (PV), 34 cases of essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 59 of myelofibrosis (MF). JAK2, MPL, and CALR mutations were mutually exclusive of each other. Seventeen cases were categorized as MPN unclassifiable (MPN-U). JAK2p.V617F and MPL mutations were present in 60% (78 of 130) and 5.3% (7 of 130) of all MPN. All the PV cases harbored the JAK2 p.V617F mutation. A total of 23.8% (31 of 130) of patients harbored CALR mutations. CALR exon 9 mutations were detected in 60.8% (14 of 23) and 50% (5 of 10) of JAK2 and MPL negative MF and ET cases, respectively. MPN-U cases included three JAK2 p.V617F positive, two MPL p.W515 L, and 12 CALR positive cases. Ten different types of CALR indels (8 deletions and 2 insertions) were detected of which Type I and Type II mutations were the most common, occurring at a frequency of 45.1% (14 of 31) and 22.5% (7 of 31), respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: We report frequencies of JAK2 p. V617F, MPL exon 10 and CALR mutations in 130 patients similar to those reported in western literature. These mutations carry not only diagnostic but also prognostic relevance.

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