Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 63  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 534-537

Assessment of apoptotic index in various grades of oral epithelial dysplasia: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 BDS, Practitioner, Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Rasika B Pawar
44/1 Off Sinhgad Road, Sinhgad Dental College, and Hospital, Pune - 411 041, Maharashtra, India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_565_19

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Context: Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide. In cancer, the equilibrium between cell proliferation and apoptosis is disturbed. The defect in the apoptotic pathway allows cells to proliferate with genetic abnormalities. Thus, the apoptotic index (AI) can be used to assess the significance of apoptosis as a proliferative marker in oral epithelial dysplasia. Aims: To assess the apoptotic index in various grades of epithelial dysplasia. Objectives: 1) To calculate the apoptotic index in various grades of oral epithelial dysplasia, 2) To compare the apoptotic index between various grades of oral epithelial dysplasia, 3) To predict the biologic behavior of oral epithelial dysplasia based on an apoptotic index. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional tissue analyzing study. Methods and Materials: This study constituted 30 cases, previously diagnosed with various grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). AI was calculated as the number of apoptotic bodies/cells expressed as a percentage of the total number of cells counted in each case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA test. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed between mild dysplasia and severe dysplasia where P = 0.002. The mean AI was increased progressively with increasing grades of OED. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the clinical significance of apoptosis in assessing disease progression in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder (OPMD) which may be used as a prognostic indicator in OED. This would, in turn, help in knowing the prognosis of the disease and to develop targeted drug therapy.

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