Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 63  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 570-574

Gallbladder stone formation in Iraqi patients is associated with bacterial infection and HLA class II-DRB1 antigens

1 Depatment of Clinical Laboratory Science, Pharmacy College, Mustansiryah University, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Pathology, Teaching Hospital of Kadhimiya, Baghdad, Iraq
3 Department of Surgery, Teaching Hospital of Al-Yarmouk, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Baydaa H Abdullah
Mustansiriyah University, College of Pharmacy, Baghdad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_841_19

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Background: Gallbladder stone is recently increased among the Iraqi society due to many risk factors such as bacterial infection and some HLA class II antigens. Aim(s): This study investigates the types of bacterial infection and HLA-DRB1 antigens' ratio that may be correlated with gallbladder stone formation. Setting and Design: The study included 45 patients and the same number of healthy individuals as a control group. Patients were with multiple gallstones. Gallstone bacterial culture was demonstrated to diagnose viable bacteria. HLA-DRB1 alleles' frequency was investigated using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP). Results: Irrespective of gallstone type and size, different types of living viable bacteria were isolated from the cores of the studied gallstones in 80% of the studied cases versus 20% of sterile gallstones. Gram-negative bacteria cultures were the dominant (89.3%), including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacter spp. Mixed infection of Gram-positive and negative bacteria was noted: Escherichia coli and Enterococus spp. and the others of Escherichia coli and Acitobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Gram-positive bacteria cultures were also detected at lower rate (10.7%) including Staphylococci spp. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*03:01, HLA-DRB1*4:03, HLA-DRB1*13:22, and HLA-DRB1*15:10 alleles was significantly elevated in patients compared to the healthy control group. Conclusion: Results ensured the viability of the bacteria isolated from the core of gallstones and showed positive correlation between gallbladder stone and different bacterial infection. In addition, HLA-DRB1 alleles were significantly high in patients compared to healthy control group suggesting them as risk factors (P < 0.05).

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