Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 282-287

A tale of monoclonal immunoglobulin: Clinicopathological analysis of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposit

1 Department of Pathology, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Nephrology, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Anatomy, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Moumita Sengupta
244 AJC Bose Road, Kolkata - 700 020, West Bengal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_16_20

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Background: Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposit (PGNMID) is an entity with a variable clinical and histological spectrum, which mimics immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis on light microscopy. In this article, we aim to describe the clinical and pathological features of six cases of PGNMID that we encountered during our routine practice. Materials and Methods: The study was of the prospective type carried out from February 2018 to August 2019. The renal biopsies that we received in our department, were processed for light microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy. Light microscopic findings were carefully re-evaluated by two experienced renal pathologists. Key diagnostic features were 1) Monoclonal staining of glomeruli for one immunoglobulin (Ig) subclass and single light chain, 2) Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) pattern (rarely membranous or crescentic), 3) Subendothelial and mesangial (rarely subepithelial) deposits. Results: We diagnosed five cases of IgG PGNMID and one case of IgA PGNMID with a mean age 53 ± 10.33 years. The most common histological pattern, seen in three cases was MPGN. IgG3 deposits were identified in five cases out of which k light chain restriction was present in four cases and λ light chain restriction was present in one case. IgA deposits were identified in one case that had λ light chain restriction. One patient suffered from multiple myeloma. Conclusions: The renal biopsy especially immunofluorescence analysis is the key modality for diagnosis of PGNMID where it shows staining of the glomerulus for a single heavy-chain subclass and a single light-chain isotype. Electron microscopic evaluation is necessary to differentiate PGNMID from other renal diseases with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits.

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