Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
Home About us Instructions Submission Subscribe Advertise Contact e-Alerts Ahead Of Print Login 
Users Online: 2124
Print this page  Email this page Bookmark this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 112-120

An update on subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma: From morphology to molecular

1 Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2 Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dhanpat Jain
310 Cedar Street, Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT – 06510
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_751_20

Rights and Permissions

The morphologic spectrum of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite broad. While in about one-third of cases, the neoplasms can be categorized into meaningful subtypes based on morphology, a vast majority of these neoplasms are morphologically heterogeneous. With extensive tumor profiling, data has begun to emerge which can correlate specific morphologic features with underlying molecular signatures. A true morphologic subtype not only has reproducible H & E features, further supported by specific immunohistochemical or molecular signatures, but also has specific clinical implications and prognostic associations. Eight such morphologic subtypes are recognized by the 2019 WHO classification of tumors with a few more additional subtypes described in the literature. The goal of this review is to familiarize the reader with the morphologic subtypes and elaborate on the clinical and molecular associations of these neoplasms.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded8    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal