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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 73-77

Diagnostic utility of multiple site duodenal biopsies in celiac disease


1 Department of Pathology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of Gastroentrology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Vikarm Narang
Department of Pathology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_797_20

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Background: Celiac Disease involves the small intestine patchily affecting more frequently the proximal small bowel but the histological changes have been observed till terminal ileum. Of late in addition to D2, the duodenal bulb (D1 region) biopsies have been found helpful in identifying a small group of patients with CD. Therefore, multiple site biopsies are recommended as histological changes are not uniform throughout small intestine. Methods: During this present 1.5 years prospective study, we evaluated 84 cases of suspected celiac disease with respect to the light microscopy (D1, D2, and D3 biopsy) and serology (anti tTg and or EMA). Histological examination was done according to Modified Marsh grading system. Results: Out of 84 cases with raised anti tTg, the segmental biopsies significantly increased the diagnostic accuracy from 39/44 cases (88.6%) to 43/44 cases (97.7%) and 44/44 cases (100%) when D2 alone, D1 + D2 and D1 + D2 + D3 biopsies were evaluated, respectively. Of the suspected cases of celiac disease patients (tTg > 10 ULN and associated weight loss, diarrhea), additional D3 biopsy increased the diagnostic yield by 2.1%, compared to D1, D2 region biopsy and 6.38% compared to standard D2 biopsy alone. Of the 28 cases (tTg > 10 times ULN + EMA positive and associated weight loss, diarrhea), the potential celiac disease (histologically Type 1/Normal) cases reduced from 28.5% (standard D2 region alone) to 21.4% and 17.8% when additional biopsies were taken from D1 region and D3 region, respectively, and additional D3 biopsy increased the diagnostic yield by 10.8% (compared to standard D2 biopsy alone) and 3.7% (compared to D1 and D2 biopsy). Conclusion: We believe multiple sites duodenal biopsies including D3 region biopsies might increase the diagnostic accuracy of adult celiac disease in addition to sensitive and specific serologic tests.


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